Development and Assessment of an Over-Expanded Engine to be Used as an Efficiency-Oriented Range Extender for Electric Vehicles
- As the RE should be seldom used, the main interest is for it to be as small and as light as possible, not to interfere with the already heavy EV;
- As the RE is a part of a very efficient and sustainable vehicle (the EV), it should be designed to be as efficient as possible.
2. Concept, Modeling Approach
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Engine Test Rig
3.2. Engine Modifications
3.3. Driving Cycle Simulation Conditions
4.1. Engine Assessment
4.2. Driving Cycle Simulation
Conflicts of Interest
|λ||Air-fuel mixture strength|
|Kfuel||Coefficient for correcting the consumption according to the UN-ECE procedure|
|BEV||Battery Electric Vehicle|
|BOOST||High Power mode of operation of the developed Range Extender|
|BSFC||Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (g/kWh)|
|ECU||Engine Control Unit|
|ECO||High efficiency mode of operation of the developed Range Extender|
|EDAM||MIT-Portugal Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing program|
|EIVC||Early Intake Valve Closure|
|ERDF||European Regional Development Fund (FEDER in Portuguese)|
|EREV||Extended Range Electric Vehicle|
|FCT||Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Portuguese funding agency)|
|LCA||Life Cycle Analysis|
|LIVC||Late Intake Valve Closure|
|MEtRICs||Mechanical Engineering and Resource Sustainability Centre|
|PHEV||Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle|
|PIDDAC||Central Administration Program for Investment and Developt. Costs (Portuguese)|
|SoC||Battery State of Charge|
|TCO||Total Costs of Ownership|
|TDC||Top Dead Centre|
|TPS||Throttle Position Sensor|
|UN-ECE||United Nations Economic Commission for Europe|
|WLTC||Worldwide-harmonized Light-vehicle Test driving Cycle|
|WLTP||Worldwide-harmonized Light-vehicle Test Procedure|
|WOT||Wide Open Throttle|
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|Model||Vehicle Mass||Reported Battery Capacity||WLTP|
|Elect. Range||Elect. Consump.||Fuel Consump.||Calculated Battery Capacity||Europe Sale Label Consump.|
|kg||kWh||km (CD)||kWh/100 km (CD)||L/100 km (CS)||kWh||L/100 km|
|Hyundai Ioniq Plug-In||1495||7.6||52||14.1||4.2||7.3||1.1|
|Toyota Prius Plug-In||1530||6.4–7.0||43||14.4||4.1||6.2||1|
|BMW I3 REx 120 Ah||1365||37.9||308||13.2||6.7||40.7||-|
|VW Golf GTE||1499||7||37||18.9||5.4||7.0||1.6|
|Vehicle, Fuel Specifications|
|Vehicle Mass, M (kg)/Rotational Inertia Coefficient, IR||1400/1.05|
|Distance between Axes (m)||2.64|
|Centre of Mass height/distance to front-axis (m)||0.59/0.5|
|Rolling Resistance Coefficient, RRC/Slip Ratio Coefficient (K)||0.008/0.15|
|Vehicle Frontal Area, (m2)/Drag Coefficient, Cd||2.22/0.27|
|Fuel Lower Heating value (MJ/kg)/density (kg/L)||44/750|
|Hybrid Powertrain Specifications|
|Battery max. power (kW)/capacity total (kWh)/usable CD mode (kWh)||50/9.1/7.3|
|Battery average one way efficiency (either charging or discharging)||93%|
|Electric motor/regen maximum power (kW)/average efficiency||50/85%|
|RE ECO engine power (kW)/efficiency||16.4/41%|
|RE BOOST engine power (kW)/efficiency||36.7/32%|
|RE generator efficiency/Minimum straight RE operation time (s)||95%/30|
|Power and SoC Threshold Levels|
|Maximum Power for EV mode under CS (kW)||<10|
|Battery SoC lower limit for EV mode under CS||<5%|
|Battery SoC level for switching from CD to CS||<20%|
|Battery SoC level for switching from CS to CD||>25%|
|Initial—Final battery SoC||36.3%|
|Initial—Final battery energy (kWh)||3.32|
|Range Extender—Total consumption per 100 km (L/100 km)||0.0|
|CD Electric consumption (kWh/100 km)||14.3|
|CD Specific electric consumption (kWh/km/kg)||1.02|
|Range in CD mode (100% to minimum CD SoC 20%) (km)||52.3|
|CS mode—Extended WLTC (25 km)|
|Initial—Final battery SoC||−4.8%|
|Initial—Final battery energy (kWh)||−0.44|
|Range Extender—Total consumption (L/100 km)||3.96|
|Parameters for consumption correction (due to different initial/final SoC):|
|Motor electrical energy needed (kWh) for whole cycle (25 km)||4.0|
|Energy requirement kWh/100 km||15.9|
|Kfuel (L/100 km)/(kWh/100 km)||0.25|
|Corrected CS consumption (higher final SoC) (L/100 km)||3.85|
|Corrected CS specific consumption (higher final SoC) (L/(km·kg))||0.28|
|Corrected CS CO2 emissions (g/km)||88.9|
|Estimation of official consumption (UF = 0.77) L/100 km||0.88|
|Estimation of official CO2 emissions (UF = 0.77) g/km||20.4|
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Brito, F.P.; Martins, J.; Lopes, F.; Castro, C.; Martins, L.; Moreira, A.L.N. Development and Assessment of an Over-Expanded Engine to be Used as an Efficiency-Oriented Range Extender for Electric Vehicles. Energies 2020, 13, 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020430
Brito FP, Martins J, Lopes F, Castro C, Martins L, Moreira ALN. Development and Assessment of an Over-Expanded Engine to be Used as an Efficiency-Oriented Range Extender for Electric Vehicles. Energies. 2020; 13(2):430. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020430Chicago/Turabian Style
Brito, F. P., Jorge Martins, Francisco Lopes, Carlos Castro, Luís Martins, and A. L. N. Moreira. 2020. "Development and Assessment of an Over-Expanded Engine to be Used as an Efficiency-Oriented Range Extender for Electric Vehicles" Energies 13, no. 2: 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020430