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Load Control by Demand Side Management to Support Grid Stability in Building Clusters

Institute of Energy in Building, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland
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This paper is an extended version of a paper published at CISBAT, 4–6 September 2019, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1343, no. 012070, pp. 1–6, 2019.
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5112; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195112
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 24 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Buildings)
Increasing numbers of photovoltaic systems and heat pumps in existing building clusters can lead to an overload of the associated electric grid substations. Based on a multi-agent-based simulation of three building cluster types the impact of building flexibility in regard to the residual substation load is studied. Each building announces its available flexibility, e.g., “heat pump can be switched off/on”. A cluster master coordinator evaluates the incoming offers and decides which offers are accepted in regard to the substation’s capacity utilization. The goal is to honour the substation’s limit by shifting the residual load. This paper presents results from three typical urban building clusters for different penetration scenarios in regard to heat pumps, photovoltaic systems, batteries and electric vehicles. It is shown that in the studied building clusters a high penetration of heat pumps and photovoltaic systems can violate the existing substation’s limits, regardless of the efforts by the master coordinator. Batteries of typical capacities cannot reduce the peak residual load. The load shifting options of the master coordinator are limited. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-agent based; demand side management; load shifting; residual load; energy flexible buildings; building cluster; substation; grid stability multi-agent based; demand side management; load shifting; residual load; energy flexible buildings; building cluster; substation; grid stability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hall, M.; Geissler, A. Load Control by Demand Side Management to Support Grid Stability in Building Clusters. Energies 2020, 13, 5112. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195112

AMA Style

Hall M, Geissler A. Load Control by Demand Side Management to Support Grid Stability in Building Clusters. Energies. 2020; 13(19):5112. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195112

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hall, Monika, and Achim Geissler. 2020. "Load Control by Demand Side Management to Support Grid Stability in Building Clusters" Energies 13, no. 19: 5112. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195112

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