Next Article in Journal
Parameter Calibration for a TRNSYS BIPV Model Using In Situ Test Data
Next Article in Special Issue
Development of a Tool for Optimizing Solar and Battery Storage for Container Farming in a Remote Arctic Microgrid
Previous Article in Journal
State Estimation for Hybrid VSC Based HVDC/AC Transmission Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exploring Wind and Solar PV Generation Complementarity to Meet Electricity Demand
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Transitioning All Energy in 74 Metropolitan Areas, Including 30 Megacities, to 100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS)

Atmosphere/Energy Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4934; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184934
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 16 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 20 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accelerating Renewable Energy Transition Post Major World Events)
To date, roadmaps and policies for transitioning from fossil fuels to clean, renewable energy have been developed for nations, provinces, states, cities, and towns in order to address air pollution, global warming, and energy insecurity. However, neither roadmaps nor policies have been developed for large metropolitan areas (aggregations of towns and cities), including megacities (metropolitan areas with populations above 10 million). This study bridges that gap by developing roadmaps to transition 74 metropolitan areas worldwide, including 30 megacities, to 100% wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) energy and storage for all energy sectors by no later than 2050, with at least 80% by 2030. Among all metropolitan areas examined, the full transition may reduce 2050 annual energy costs by 61.1% (from $2.2 to $0.86 trillion/yr in 2013 USD) and social costs (energy plus air pollution plus climate costs) by 89.6% (from $8.3 to $0.86 trillion/yr). The large energy cost reduction is due to the 57.1% lower end-used energy requirements and the 9% lower cost per unit energy with WWS. The air pollution cost reduction of ~$2.6 (1.5–4.6) trillion/yr is due mostly to the saving of 408,000 (322,000–506,000) lives/yr with WWS. Global climate cost savings due to WWS are ~$3.5 (2.0–7.5) trillion/yr (2013 USD). The transition may also create ~1.4 million more long-term, full-time jobs than lost. Thus, moving to 100% clean, renewable energy and storage for all purposes in metropolitan areas can result in significant economic, health, climate, and job benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: megacities; urban air pollution; climate change; renewable energy; wind; solar megacities; urban air pollution; climate change; renewable energy; wind; solar
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Jacobson, M.Z.; von Krauland, A.-K.; Burton, Z.F.; Coughlin, S.J.; Jaeggli, C.; Nelli, D.; Nelson, A.J.H.; Shu, Y.; Smith, M.; Tan, C.; Wood, C.D.; Wood, K.D. Transitioning All Energy in 74 Metropolitan Areas, Including 30 Megacities, to 100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS). Energies 2020, 13, 4934.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop