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On the Wind Energy Resource above High-Rise Buildings
Open AccessArticle

Life Cycle Assessment of Tall Onshore Hybrid Steel Wind Turbine Towers

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
2
ISISE, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
3
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3950; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153950
Received: 6 July 2020 / Revised: 20 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 1 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wind Energy Structures)
Increasing needs for taller wind turbines with bigger capacities, intended for places with high wind velocities or at higher altitudes, have led to new technologies in the wind energy industry. A recently introduced structural system for onshore wind turbine towers is the hybrid steel tower. Comprehension of the environmental response of this hybrid steel structural system is warranted. Even though life cycle assessments (LCAs) for conventional wind turbine tubular towers exist, the environmental performance of this new hybrid structure has not been reported. The present paper examines the LCA of 185 m tall hybrid towers. Considerations made for the LCA procedure are meticulously described, including particular attention at the erection and transportation stage. The highest environmental impacts arise during the manufacturing stage followed by the erection stage. The tower is the component with the largest carbon emissions and energy requirements. The obtained LCA footprints of hybrid towers are also compared to the literature data on conventional towers, resulting in similar environmental impacts. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA); wind turbines; hybrid towers; global warming potential (GWP); renewable energy life cycle assessment (LCA); wind turbines; hybrid towers; global warming potential (GWP); renewable energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gkantou, M.; Rebelo, C.; Baniotopoulos, C. Life Cycle Assessment of Tall Onshore Hybrid Steel Wind Turbine Towers. Energies 2020, 13, 3950.

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