Techno-Economic Assessment of Mobilized Thermal Energy Storage System Using Geothermal Source in Polish Conditions
2. Methods and Assumptions
2.1. Total Heat Demand
- Heat demand for households using coal-based heat sources. In the first place, these sources should be replaced by renewable energy, due to carbon dioxide and pollution emission to the air . For coal-based heat sources, the average heat demand per m2 of usable floor space is 222 kWh/(m2·year) for insulated buildings and 253 kWh/(m2·year) for non-insulated buildings . The average usable floor space of households (in rural areas) is 108.3 m2 and the total energy demand is 216 kWh/(m2·year) . At the same time, the area up to several km from Bańska Niżna is characterized by a large diversity of buildings (from small traditional one- and two-room houses to multi-story residential houses) as well as their energy efficiency. DHW demand was determined on the basis of average consumption of DHW per person 35 dm3/(person·day)  and the number of households in Lesser Poland Voivodeship , as well as on the basis of efficiency of heat production and transport for coal sources. The results are shown in Figure 4.
- The ratio of heat loss to THD (lower limit of THD range)—discussed in detail later in the article.
- Possibilities for the number of M.TES exchanges during the day—also discussed in detail later in the article.
2.2. Economical Profitability and NPV
- Euro exchange rate 1 EUR = 4.5 PLN,
- The total costs of the driver’s work (and also the person servicing the M-TES exchange in the heat source location and at the buildings) for the employer, TWC = 5 Euro/hour,
- The total cost of transportation by the car with a trailer with a total permissible weight up to 3.5 Mg, TTC: 0.2 EUR/km. This cost includes the purchase of the fuel, service costs, inspections, and depreciation of the car,
- Unit transport time, UTT: 2 min/km,
- Container exchanging time at the heat source and at the recipient, together with time for changing magazines, TfCMs: 12 min,
- Geothermal heat price without distribution, GHP: 0.0322 EUR/kWh ,
- lifetime of M-TES, n = 20 years
- discount rate (r) from 0% to 6% 
- M-TES.P = 6000 EUR
- initial investment cost IO = 2·M-TES.P
2.3. Carbon Dioxide Emission
- Transportation of the M-TES storage by car, on the trailer, EM.CO2.KM = 0.240 kg CO2/km 
- emission related to the current heat source (EM.CO2.OS) :
- associated with auxiliary energy for the service of pumps and devices in a geothermal heating plant (1% of THD + HL(M-TES)) in a geothermal source (EM.CO2.G): 0.0078 kg CO2/kWh (it is about kWh of energy produced from a geothermal source) .
3.1. Analysis of M-TES System Operation in Relation to the Total Heat Demand Size for the Building
3.2. Economical Profiltability
- 5000 kWh/year; at the price LCOH.OS = 0.21 EUR/kWh and distance = 0.5 km;
- 10,000 kWh/year; at the price LCOH.OS = 0.135 EUR/kWh and distance = 0.5 km; at the price 0.235 EUR/kWh and distance = 6 km;
- 15,000 kWh/year; at the price LCOH.OS = 0.11 EUR/kWh and distance = 0.5 km; at the price 0.205 EUR/kWh and distance = 6 km;
- 20,000 kWh/year; at the price LCOH.OS = 0.095 EUR/kWh and distance = 0.5 km; at the price 0.19 EUR/kWh and distance = 6 km;
- 25,000 kWh/year; at the price LCOH.OS = 0.085 EUR/kWh and distance = 0.5 km; at the price 0.18 EUR/kWh and distance = 6 km.
3.3. NPV Analysis
3.4. Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction
- A total of 9 Mg CO2 emission reduction when replacing a coal-fueled heat source,
- A total of 4.8 Mg CO2 emission reduction when replacing a natural gas heat source. For a distance of 10 km and THD = 5000 kWh/year, and when replacing a source powered by natural gas, the reduction will be only 0.2 Mg CO2/year.
Conflicts of Interest
|CGH||Cost of Geothermal Heat, EUR/year|
|chl||coefficient for heat losses, W/(K·dm3/2)|
|CF||Cash Flow, EUR|
|DHW||Domestic hot water|
|dist.||distance between building and Geothermal Base Station, km|
|EM.CO2.G||Emission connected with Geothermal source, kg CO2/kWh|
|EM.CO2.KM||Emission from car per km, kg CO2/km|
|EM.CO2.OS||Emission from other than Geothermal source, kg CO2/kWh|
|EP||Economical profitability, EUR/year|
|FC.OS||total cost of fuel for other than Geothermal heat source, EUR/year|
|GHP||unit geothermal heat price, EUR/kWh|
|HL||Heat loss, kWh|
|IO||initial investment value, EUR|
|LCOH||Levelized Cost of Heating, EUR/kWh|
|LCOH.G||Levelized Cost of Heating (for n years) for Geothermal source|
|LCOH.OS||Levelized Cost of Heating (for n years) for other than Geothermal source|
|M-TES||Mobile Thermal Energy Storage|
|M-TES.EX||Mobile Thermal Energy Storage exchanged|
|M-TES.P||M-TES price, EUR|
|n||lifetime of M-TES, year|
|ni||number of M-TES for each house|
|nl||correction coefficient of lifetime for other source|
|NPV||Net present value, EUR|
|OS.P||other source price, EUR|
|r||discount rate, %|
|RE.CO2||reduction of CO2 emissions, kgCO2/year|
|Ta||Outside temperature, °C|
|TC||Transport and work cost, EUR/kWh|
|TfCMs||Time for M-TES exchanging, min|
|THD||Total heat demand for the building, kWh/year|
|TPEH_GEO||Total price of energy for heating—geothermal source, EUR/kWh|
|TPEH_OS||Total price of energy for heating—other source (not geothermal), EUR/kWh|
|TTC||Total transport cost, EUR/km|
|TWC||Total work cost, EUR/h|
|UTT||unit transport time, min/km|
|WC||work cost, EUR/year|
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|Parameter||Base Value||Unit||Change of Parameter Base Value|
|Distance, km||Carbon Dioxide Emission of M-TES Transport, kg/year for THD:|
|Distance, km||Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emission, kg/year|
|for Replacement of Coal Source, for THD:||for Replacement of Natural Gas Source, for THD:|
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Matuszewska, D.; Kuta, M.; Olczak, P. Techno-Economic Assessment of Mobilized Thermal Energy Storage System Using Geothermal Source in Polish Conditions. Energies 2020, 13, 3404. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133404
Matuszewska D, Kuta M, Olczak P. Techno-Economic Assessment of Mobilized Thermal Energy Storage System Using Geothermal Source in Polish Conditions. Energies. 2020; 13(13):3404. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133404Chicago/Turabian Style
Matuszewska, Dominika, Marta Kuta, and Piotr Olczak. 2020. "Techno-Economic Assessment of Mobilized Thermal Energy Storage System Using Geothermal Source in Polish Conditions" Energies 13, no. 13: 3404. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133404