Eco-Efficient Value Creation of Residential Street Lighting Systems by Simultaneously Analysing the Value, the Costs and the Eco-Costs during the Design and Engineering Phase
1.1. The Issue: Progress in Sustainable Product Innovation, and Circular Business Models
1.2. The Challenge: A Sustainable Street Lighting System for the City of Rotterdam
2. The Methods
2.1. The Eco-Costs, a Monetized Single Indicator in LCA
2.2. The Model of the Eco-Costs/Value Ratio
- force industry to reduce the eco-costs of their products (this will shift the curve downward);
- try to reduce expenditures of consumers in the high end of the curve, by attractive offerings at the low end of the curve (this will shift the middle part of the curve to the right).
2.3. Eco-Efficient Value Creation
- to increase value where value is high (more quality, service, life span, and image);
- to decrease the eco-costs where the eco-costs are high (a shift to bio-based materials, recycling and renewable energy).
- Stpe 1
- Life Cycle Thinking: At the start of the design process, the basic questions on circular design are whether or not the product must be suitable for easy repair, takeback + remanufacturing, or takeback + recycling of the materials. Note that circular designs are not always realistic in practice (because of long life times, high costs of return transport to the factory, low quantities, high remanufacturing costs, governmental regulations etc.). So Life Cycle Thinking must comprise many aspects that are on a higher level than the product chain itself .
- Step 2
- Functional requirements, and possible add-ons to enhance the CPV: Establish the ‘musts’ and the ‘wants’ in terms of functionalities, and in terms of enhancing the CPV .
- Step 3
- Idea generation and materials selection: The designer might be inspired by biomimicry, nature-inspired design, bio-inspired design, C2C, and other philosophies and design tools . Since the choice of materials plays a governing role in this design stage , the LCA-based Idemat app for materials selection (specially developed to support eco-efficient value design) might be applied .
- Step 4
- Concept development and design optimisation: This is a highly iterative process as depicted in Figure 7.
- Step 5
- Detailed design with a final product LCA and with sourcing of components (materials): This is the stage of the classical LCA, to find the environmental the hotspots of the final design.
- Step 6
- Selection of suppliers: At the stage of sourcing of the components and materials, LCA should be applied to select the preferred suppliers.
3. Results: Example of the Design of a Street Lighting System
3.1. Base Case: the EVR of a Traditional Design in the City of Rotterdam
- Manufacturing and installation costs. These costs include the purchasing costs of the pole and luminaire and the working hours and administration costs of the installation process. Creating a grid connection, digging for cables and the pole are expensive: about 55% of the installing costs. Purchasing the pole and luminaire is the other 45%.
- Technical management. This is mainly related to maintenance work, such as: replace light bulbs, repair electronics and cable failures (after accidents), clean luminaires.
- Administrative management. These costs are related to desk work. Examples are: office expenses and taxes, inspections of luminaries and processing of the inspection reports.
- Energy consumption. This is based on the most used light source for residential streets: 36 W PL fluorescent lamps. The yearly operating time of a single light bulb is 4200 h. In addition, some taxes are included in the energy consumption costs.
- End of life. These are the costs for the removal tax of a pole and luminaire, and the removal costs of the current grid connection.
3.2. The Design of the New System
4. Discussion and Conclusions
- The sustainable innovation is not necessarily found in the application of radically new technologies, products or services. Sustainable innovation is the way in which existing technologies, products and services constitute a new sustainable product-service system with a viable business model that adds value to all the three stakeholders: (1) the municipality, by more value for the same costs; (2) the citizens in the street, by adding safety at night in combination with the trees in the street; (3) the owner and/or residents of the building, by reducing the costs of electricity.
- the chosen solution actually has potentially a spin-off effect that might become even more important than the system itself: the design concept inspires end-users to place additional, privately owned, solar panels on their roofs, alongside the solar panel of the municipality. Note that this is a very cost-effective way, since the installation of extra panels hardly adds to the installation costs.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Unit||Amount for 1 FU||LCI Database Line||Eco-Costs Per Unit||CO2e Per Unit||Eco-Costs Per FU||CO2e Per FU|
|kg||3.52||Aluminium trade mix (45% prim 55% sec)||2.12||6.26||7.5||22.0|
|kg||34.93||Steel (21% sec = market mix average)||0.60||1.61||20.8||56.2|
|kg||2.10||Polyester (unsaturated) 70%||2.04||7.46||4.3||15.7|
|kg||0.90||Glass fibre 30%||0.10||0.48||0.1||0.4|
|kg||0.07||Copper trade mix (56% prim 44% sec)||2.70||1.82||0.2||0.1|
|kg||0.04||ABS pellets 50%||1.32||3.40||0.1||0.1|
|kg||0.04||PC pellets 50%||2.05||7.78||0.1||0.3|
|kg||0.08||PWB desktop, including components and Ics||60.71||160.41||4.9||12.8|
|m||16.60||Electric cord, 1000 W, 3 × 0.5 mm2, domestic||0.07||0.14||1.2||2.3|
|kg||0.55||X5CrNi18 (Stainless steel 304)||2.66||3.85||1.5||2.1|
|kg||34.00||Drawing of pipe, steel||0.170||0.360||5.8||12.2|
|m2||10.25||Electroplating Zinc, outside use, per 10 years||5.479||2.974||56.2||30.5|
|m2||2.56||Powder coating, steel/RER S||1.105||4.570||2.8||11.7|
|kg||5.43||Injection molding plastics||0.264||1.333||1.4||7.2|
|kg||1.50||Cold transforming Al||0.019||0.104||0.0||0.2|
|kg||0.99||Deep drawing steel||0.065||0.316||0.1||0.3|
|Material supplies + manufacturing processes excluding transport and installation||112||192|
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Klaassen, N.; Scheepens, A.; Flipsen, B.; Vogtlander, J. Eco-Efficient Value Creation of Residential Street Lighting Systems by Simultaneously Analysing the Value, the Costs and the Eco-Costs during the Design and Engineering Phase. Energies 2020, 13, 3351. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133351
Klaassen N, Scheepens A, Flipsen B, Vogtlander J. Eco-Efficient Value Creation of Residential Street Lighting Systems by Simultaneously Analysing the Value, the Costs and the Eco-Costs during the Design and Engineering Phase. Energies. 2020; 13(13):3351. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133351Chicago/Turabian Style
Klaassen, Nine, Arno Scheepens, Bas Flipsen, and Joost Vogtlander. 2020. "Eco-Efficient Value Creation of Residential Street Lighting Systems by Simultaneously Analysing the Value, the Costs and the Eco-Costs during the Design and Engineering Phase" Energies 13, no. 13: 3351. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133351