Next Article in Journal
Heating Performance Characteristics of an Electric Vehicle Heat Pump Air Conditioning System Based on Exergy Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimization of Vehicle Braking Distance Using a Fuzzy Controller
Previous Article in Journal
The Sensitivity of an Electro-Thermal Photovoltaic DC–DC Converter Model to the Temperature Dependence of the Electrical Variables for Reliability Analyses
Previous Article in Special Issue
Battery Management Systems—Challenges and Some Solutions
Review

Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicle Batteries: An Overview of Recent Literature

Ricerca Sistema Energetico—RSE SpA, 20134 Milan, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2864; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112864
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 27 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Systems for Transportation)
In electric and hybrid vehicles Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs), batteries play a central role and are in the spotlight of scientific community and public opinion. Automotive batteries constitute, together with the powertrain, the main differences between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. For this reason, many decision makers and researchers wondered whether energy and environmental impacts from batteries production, can exceed the benefits generated during the vehicle’s use phase. In this framework, the purpose of the present literature review is to understand how large and variable the main impacts are due to automotive batteries’ life cycle, with particular attention to climate change impacts, and to support researchers with some methodological suggestions in the field of automotive batteries’ LCA. The results show that there is high variability in environmental impact assessment; CO2eq emissions per kWh of battery capacity range from 50 to 313 g CO2eq/kWh. Nevertheless, either using the lower or upper bounds of this range, electric vehicles result less carbon-intensive in their life cycle than corresponding diesel or petrol vehicles. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery electric vehicles; environmental impacts; life cycle assessment; review battery electric vehicles; environmental impacts; life cycle assessment; review
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Temporelli, A.; Carvalho, M.L.; Girardi, P. Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicle Batteries: An Overview of Recent Literature. Energies 2020, 13, 2864. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112864

AMA Style

Temporelli A, Carvalho ML, Girardi P. Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicle Batteries: An Overview of Recent Literature. Energies. 2020; 13(11):2864. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112864

Chicago/Turabian Style

Temporelli, Andrea, Maria L. Carvalho, and Pierpaolo Girardi. 2020. "Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicle Batteries: An Overview of Recent Literature" Energies 13, no. 11: 2864. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112864

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop