Monitoring a Sample of Main Televisions and Connected Entertainment Systems in Northern Italy
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. General Strategy
- TV is the only entertainment device with an EU energy label; it could be interesting and useful to analyze the effect of the introduction of energy label on the actual energy consumption, especially by comparing the results to the previous campaigns.
- Previous monitoring campaigns show that the main TV causes a far higher energy consumption compared to a secondary TV set; for example, during the REMODECE project, main TVs had an average annual consumption of 307 kWh/year, while secondary TVs consumed only 47 kWh/year (−85%) .
2.2. Key Questions to be Addressed by the Campaign
- Total energy consumption: what is the average daily/annual consumption of TVs and entertainment systems? What is the percentage of their consumption compared to the total electric consumption?
- Standby energy consumption: what is the standby power demand for each device of the entertainment set?
- Consumption driving forces: which are the main determinants influencing the total energy consumption (year of purchase, technology, energy class, screen size)?
- Time of use: what is the average daily on-time use?
2.3. Monitoring System and Campaign Organization
2.4. Sample Identification
2.5. The Monitored Television Sets
3.1. Electric Consumption Levels
- The average daily consumption of the main television was equal to 494 Wh (between a maximum of 1862 Wh and a minimum of 7 Wh), and it represented 5% of the total electric consumption.
- The average daily consumption of the entertainment systems (in the 13 households where they were present) was equal to 257 Wh (between a maximum of 782 Wh and a minimum of 2 Wh), and it represented 3% of the total electric consumption.
- The average daily consumption of the overall set-up (main TV and connected devices) was 622 Wh (between a maximum of 1862 Wh and a minimum of 9 Wh). It represented 9% of the total electric consumption.
3.2. Standby Power
3.3. Determinants Influencing TV Consumptions
3.4. Time of Usage
4.1. Comparison with Previous Studies
- older televisions: 22% of the monitored devices have standby power demand higher than 5 W, with a peak of 43 W;
- satellite decoders with advanced features have standby power greater than 13 W.
4.2. Lessons Learnt
- the characteristics of the current TV stock, which is characterized by a high inertia (less than 30% of main TVs are labeled and almost 40% of all TVs have a standby power higher than the Ecodesign requirement);
- the energy consumptions of different types of entertainment devices, which assume an increasing weight on the electricity bill of a household (on average, 9% in this case);
- the better energy performance of LCDs with LED with respect to LCDs with CCFL (the average on-mode power is reduced by 43%), in addition to as a function of the screen size and the year of purchase;
- the overall significant reduction of standby power and consumption;
- the time of use of the main television, which results definitely higher than the reference used to calculate the annual consumption displayed on the energy label.
- although new consumption patterns are emerging, TV and its peripherals are still a major and increasing cause of electricity consumption;
- in particular, the time of use seems to be underestimated and should be better investigated;
- the legislation on standby power seems to be effective, but a specific regulation should be introduced for those appliances such as satellite decoders that are always on even when they are not used (because the TV to which they are connected is off).
Conflicts of Interest
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|Geographical Context||Date||Sample Size||Campaign||Reference|
|France||1995||111||Enertech, Project Ciel|||
|France||1998||20||Enertech, Project ECODROME|||
|Italy||2001||102||EERG, Project EURECO|||
|Italy||2002||110||EERG, Project Micene|||
|Italy||2009||60||EERG, Project REMODECE|||
|Florida||2017||60||Florida Solar Energy Center|||
|Household||Location (Province)||Building Type||Main TV Monitored||Standby Monitored|
|Technology||Energy Label||TV||ES||Type of ES|
|HH07||Milan||SFH||LCD CCFL||-||1||2||Decoder/smartbox, gaming console|
|HH10||Milan||AB||LCD CCFL||-||1||1||TV, gaming console|
|HH14||Milan||SFH||LCD CCFL||-||1||2||Decoder/smartbox, Home theater|
|HH16||Milan||AB||LCD CCFL||B||1||1||DVD player|
|HH21||Varese||AB||LCD LED||A||2||2||Speakers, Decoder/smartbox|
|HH26||Varese||SFH||LCD CCFL||-||1||2||Gaming console, radio|
|HH28||Varese||SFH||LCD CCFL||-||2||3||Satellite decoder, decoder/smartbox, home theater|
|HH29||Varese||SFH||Plasma||-||2||2||Home theater, video recorder|
|HH31||Varese||SFH||LCD LED||A+||3||4||Home theater, home theater, decoder/smartbox, gaming console|
|HH36||Varese||SFH||LCD CCFL||-||2||1||DVD player|
|HH38||Varese||AB||LCD LED||-||1||1||Gaming console|
|HH39||Varese||SFH||LCD LED||A+||4||6||Speakers, home theater, decoder/smartbox, gaming console, decoder/smartbox, gaming console|
|HH30 *||Varese||SFH||-||-||1||3||Hard disk, decoder/smartbox, gaming console|
|Sample size (number of households)||102||110||60||28|
|Annual electric consumption (kWh/year)||Average household||3157||3229||3050||3139|
|Average entertainment devices||70||71||96||94|
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Ruggieri, G.; Zangheri, P.; Bulgarelli, M.; Pistochini, P. Monitoring a Sample of Main Televisions and Connected Entertainment Systems in Northern Italy. Energies 2019, 12, 1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091741
Ruggieri G, Zangheri P, Bulgarelli M, Pistochini P. Monitoring a Sample of Main Televisions and Connected Entertainment Systems in Northern Italy. Energies. 2019; 12(9):1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091741Chicago/Turabian Style
Ruggieri, Gianluca, Paolo Zangheri, Mattia Bulgarelli, and Patrizia Pistochini. 2019. "Monitoring a Sample of Main Televisions and Connected Entertainment Systems in Northern Italy" Energies 12, no. 9: 1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091741