- freely available
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081521
- A new virtual organization of agents’ structure in the distribution network.
- A novel iterative algorithm for energy trade between end-users and the DisCo in the power distribution system.
- The evaluation of energy trading scenarios through the proposed model.
2. Virtual Organization of Agents in the Power Distribution Grid
- The Information Provider (IP) records information of all other agents, as well as the environmental conditions. Furthermore, the IP is responsible for sending/receiving information to/from the external agents that correspond to its organization, as shown in Figure 1.
- The Prediction Engine (PE) forecasts the uncertain variables (e.g., the energy generated from distributed energy resources, electrical consumption, electricity price, etc.) of end-users based on information provided by the IP. In this way, the values predicted by the PE are the inputs of the DMS.
- The Decision-Making System (DMS) is in charge of making optimum decisions for its corresponding organization (e.g., end-user, aggregator, and the DisCo). On the one hand, the inputs of the DMS are received from the IP and the PE. On the other hand, the outputs of the DMS are sent to the IP, which exchanges them with the external agents from the corresponding organization. Figure 1 shows interactions between agents in the end-user’s organization.
2.3. Distribution Company
3. Problem Formulation
3.1. Energy Trading Model
3.2. Proposed Iterative Algorithm
- End-users energy trading problem (Problem E):
- DSO’s problem (Problem D):
4. Simulation Results
4.1. Case Study
4.2. Evaluation of the Proposed Iterative Algorithm
- If all end-users participate as interruptible loads in the distribution network, the energy trade was more profitable for all the agents.
- Our proposed algorithm was profitable for aggregators and the DisCo, who are policy makers in the power distribution system.
- The proposed algorithm was costly for all end-users in comparison with the decentralized approach (which is not practical in current power systems) to manage energy by end-users in the distribution network, because the DisCo is in charge of determining the amount of energy that can be traded between the DisCo and end-users.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Expected Cost (Case)|
|(Case 1) (€)||−2394.438||−714.291|
|(Case 1) (€)||−239.444||733.548|
|(Case 1) (€)||−2273.819||−1461.078|
|(Case 2) (€)||159.767||1111.734|
|(Case 2) (€)||−239.444||−100.082|
|(Case 2) (€)||−8607.231||−5612.034|
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