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Open AccessArticle

Optimal Sizing of Storage Elements for a Vehicle Based on Fuel Cells, Supercapacitors, and Batteries

Instituto de Robótica e Informática Industrial (IRI), CSIC-UPC, C/Llorens i Artigues, 4-6, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Departament d’Enginyeria de Sistemes, Automàtica i Informàtica Industrial, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C/Pau Gargallo, 5, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(5), 925;
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 10 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Storage and Management for Electric Vehicles)
To achieve a vehicle-efficient energy management system, an architecture composed of a PEM fuel cell as the main energy source and a hybrid storage system based on battery banks and supercapacitors is proposed. This paper introduces a methodology for the optimal component sizing aiming at minimizing the total cost, achieving a cheaper system that can achieve the requirements of the speed profiles. The chosen vehicle is an urban transport bus, which must meet the Buenos Aires Driving Cycle, and the Manhattan Driving Cycle. The combination of batteries and supercapacitors allows a better response to the vehicle’s power demand, since it combines the high energy density of the batteries with the high power density of the supercapacitors, allowing the best absorption of energy coming from braking. In this way, we address the rapid changes in power without reducing the global efficiency of the system. Optimum use of storage systems and fuel cell is analyzed through dynamic programming. View Full-Text
Keywords: optimal control; supercapacitors; batteries; fuel cell; hybrid vehicle optimal control; supercapacitors; batteries; fuel cell; hybrid vehicle
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Sampietro, J.L.; Puig, V.; Costa-Castelló, R. Optimal Sizing of Storage Elements for a Vehicle Based on Fuel Cells, Supercapacitors, and Batteries. Energies 2019, 12, 925.

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