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Energies 2019, 12(5), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12050793

Characterization of Wave Energy Potential for the Baltic Sea with Focus on the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone

1
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
3
Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SE-601 76 Norrköping, Sweden
4
Geological Survey of Sweden, Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala, Sweden
5
Division of Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Energy Conversion)
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Abstract

In this study, a third-generation wave model is used to examine the wave power resource for the Baltic Sea region at an unprecedented one-kilometer-scale resolution for the years 1998 to 2013. Special focus is given to the evaluation and description of wave field characteristics for the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone (SEEZ). It is carried out to provide a more detailed assessment of the potential of waves as a renewable energy resource for the region. The wave energy potential is largely controlled by the distance from the coast and the fetch associated with the prevailing dominant wave direction. The ice cover is also shown to significantly influence the wave power resource, especially in the most northern basins of the SEEZ. For the areas in focus here, the potential annual average wave energy flux reaches 45 MWh/m/year in the two sub-basins with the highest wave energies, but local variations are up to 65 MWh/m/year. The assessment provides the basis for a further detailed identification of potential sites for wave energy converters. An outlook is given for additional aspects studied within a broad multi-disciplinary project to assess the conditions for offshore wave energy conversion within the SEEZ. View Full-Text
Keywords: wave energy potential; wave power; wave energy resource assessment; third-generation wave model; Baltic Sea; Swedish exclusive economic zone; semi-enclosed basin; water depth; distance from coast wave energy potential; wave power; wave energy resource assessment; third-generation wave model; Baltic Sea; Swedish exclusive economic zone; semi-enclosed basin; water depth; distance from coast
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nilsson, E.; Rutgersson, A.; Dingwell, A.; Björkqvist, J.-V.; Pettersson, H.; Axell, L.; Nyberg, J.; Strömstedt, E. Characterization of Wave Energy Potential for the Baltic Sea with Focus on the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. Energies 2019, 12, 793.

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