When the transmission capacity of an electrical system is insufficient to adequately serve customer demand, the transmission system is said to be experiencing congestion. More transmission lines can be built to increase capacity. However, transmission congestion typically only occurs during periods of peak demand, which occur just a few times per year; capitol-intensive investments in new transmission capacity address problems that occur infrequently. Alternative solutions to alleviated transmission congestion have been devised, including generation curtailment, demand response programs, and various remedial action schema. Though not currently a common solution, battery energy storage systems can also provide transmission congestion relief. Technological and market trends indicate the growing production capacity of battery energy storage systems and decreasing prices, which indicate the technology may soon become a viable option for providing congestion relief. Batteries can provide multiple ancillary services, and so can concurrently provide value through multiple revenue streams. In this manuscript, the authors present a systematic review of literature, technology, regulations, and projects related to the use of battery energy storage systems to provide transmission congestion relief.
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