In this study, we validated a wind-turbine parameterisation for large-eddy simulation (LES) of yawed wind-turbine wakes. The presented parameterisation is modified from the rotational actuator disk model (ADMR), which takes account of both thrust and tangential forces induced by a wind turbine based on the blade-element theory. LES results using the yawed ADMR were validated with wind-tunnel measurements of the wakes behind a stand-alone miniature wind turbine model with different yaw angles. Comparisons were also made with the predictions of analytical wake models. In general, LES results using the yawed ADMR are in good agreement with both wind-tunnel measurements and analytical wake models regarding wake deflections and spanwise profiles of the mean velocity deficit and the turbulence intensity. Moreover, the power output of the yawed wind turbine is directly computed from the tangential forces resolved by the yawed ADMR, in contrast with the indirect power estimation used in the standard actuator disk model. We found significant improvement in the power prediction from LES using the yawed ADMR over the simulations using the standard actuator disk without rotation, suggesting a good potential of the yawed ADMR to be applied in LES studies of active yaw control in wind farms.
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