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Open AccessArticle

Research of the Energy Losses of Photovoltaic (PV) Modules after Hail Simulation Using a Newly-Created Testbed

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Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, J. Basanaviciaus St. 28, LT-03224 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Institute of Mechanical Science, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, J. Basanaviciaus St. 28, LT-03224 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Department of Agricultural, Forestry and Transport Machines, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 28 Głęboka Street, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4537; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234537
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Solar Collector)
The impact of hail ice cubes on composite structures (such as solar cells) causes actual defects. This article presents a series of tests, in which solar cell modules were exposed to hail simulation testbed balls, allowing to assess the following: the impact energy, which causes the major defects in solar cells; the formed micro-cracks in the structure of solar cells, resulting in the loss of power generated by a solar cell; and the solar cell parameters necessary for modelling. In addition, this article presents a digital analysis of hail simulation. Information received from the digital analysis was used to optimize the structure of solar cells in order to improve its resistance properties. The aim of this study was to present a simple method for experimental hail simulation. The proposed hail impact estimation method can be successfully applied to study the influence of the mechanical–dynamic impact of photovoltaic (PV) modules of different structures on the technical characteristics of these modules (structural stability, power generation, etc.). The study showed that PV modules are subjected to an irreversible effect of the excitation force (i.e., micro-cracking) and it can reduce the generated power by 2.33% to 4.83%. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) module; hail simulation; resistance of photovoltaic modules; energy losses; newly-created testbed photovoltaic (PV) module; hail simulation; resistance of photovoltaic modules; energy losses; newly-created testbed
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Kilikevičienė, K.; Matijošius, J.; Kilikevičius, A.; Jurevičius, M.; Makarskas, V.; Caban, J.; Marczuk, A. Research of the Energy Losses of Photovoltaic (PV) Modules after Hail Simulation Using a Newly-Created Testbed. Energies 2019, 12, 4537.

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