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Open AccessArticle

The Cooling Effect of Large-Scale Urban Parks on Surrounding Area Thermal Comfort

1
Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid-UPM, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
School of Engineering and Built Environment, Griffith University, Gold Coast 4222, Australia
3
Institute of Automation, Kalman Kando Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Obuda University, 1034 Budapest, Hungary
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Faculty of Health, The Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
5
School of Built the Environment, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX30BP, UK
6
Department of Mathematics and Informatics, J. Selye University, 94501 Komarno, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(20), 3904; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12203904
Received: 1 September 2019 / Revised: 13 October 2019 / Accepted: 14 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Heat Island Mitigation Technologies)
This empirical study investigates large urban park cooling effects on the thermal comfort of occupants in the vicinity of the main central park, located in Madrid, Spain. Data were gathered during hot summer days, using mobile observations and a questionnaire. The results showed that the cooling effect of this urban park of 125 ha area at a distance of 150 m could reduce air temperatures by an average of 0.63 °C and 1.28 °C for distances of 380 m and 665 meters from the park. Moreover, the degree of the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index at a distance of 150 meters from the park is on average 2 °C PET and 2.3 °C PET less compared to distances of 380 m and 665 m, respectively. Considering the distance from the park, the correlation between occupant perceived thermal comfort (PTC) and PET is inverse. That is, augmenting the distance from the park increases PET, while the extent of PTC reduces accordingly. The correlation between these two factors at the nearest and furthest distances from the park is meaningful (p-value < 0.05). The results also showed that large-scale urban parks generally play a significant part in creating a cognitive state of high-perceived thermal comfort spaces for residents. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooling effect; urban park; thermal comfort; physiological equivalent temperature; perceived thermal comfort; urban heat island; air temperature; sustainable cities; smart cities; urban health; global warming; urban green spaces; sustainable urban development; climate change mitigation and adaptation; urban resilience  cooling effect; urban park; thermal comfort; physiological equivalent temperature; perceived thermal comfort; urban heat island; air temperature; sustainable cities; smart cities; urban health; global warming; urban green spaces; sustainable urban development; climate change mitigation and adaptation; urban resilience 
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aram, F.; Solgi, E.; Higueras García, E.; Mosavi, A.; R. Várkonyi-Kóczy, A. The Cooling Effect of Large-Scale Urban Parks on Surrounding Area Thermal Comfort. Energies 2019, 12, 3904.

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