Next Article in Journal
CO2 Efficiency Break Points for Processes Associated to Wood and Coal Transport and Heating
Previous Article in Journal
Smart Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Based on Active Balancing with Wireless Communication Feedback
Open AccessArticle

Triggering Optimal Control of Air Conditioning Systems by Event-Driven Mechanism: Comparing Direct and Indirect Approaches

1
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China
2
National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Municipal Sewage Resource Utilization Technology, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China
3
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
4
Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(20), 3863; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12203863
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 2 October 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Flexibility in Smart Buildings)
Real-time optimal control of air conditioning (AC) is important, and should respond to the condition changes for an energy efficient operation. The traditional optimal control triggering mechanism is based on the “time clock” (called time-driven), and has certain drawbacks (e.g., delayed or unnecessary actions). Thus, an event-driven optimal control (EDOC) was proposed. In previous studies, the part-load ratio (PLR) of chiller plants was used as events to trigger optimal control actions. However, PLR is an indirect indicator of operation efficiency, which could misrepresent the system coefficient of performance (SCOP). This study thus proposes to directly monitor the SCOP deviations from the desired SCOP values. Two events are defined based on transient and cumulative SCOP deviations, which are systematically investigated in terms of energy performance and robustness. The PLR-based and SCOP-based EDOC are compared, in which energy saving and optimal control triggering time are analyzed. Results suggest that SCOP-based EDOC has better energy performance compared with PLR-based EDOC, but the frequent event triggering might happen due to the parameter uncertainty. For actual applications, the SCOP-based EDOC can be recommended when the ideal SCOP model is available with the properly-handled uncertainty. Nevertheless, the PLR-based EDOC could still be a more practical option to replace the traditional TDOC considering its acceptable energy performance and better robustness. View Full-Text
Keywords: real-time optimal control; system coefficient of performance; event-driven optimal control real-time optimal control; system coefficient of performance; event-driven optimal control
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.; Liu, R.; Zhang, L.; ASAD, H.S.; Meng, E. Triggering Optimal Control of Air Conditioning Systems by Event-Driven Mechanism: Comparing Direct and Indirect Approaches. Energies 2019, 12, 3863.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop