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Energies 2019, 12(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020219

Direct Driven Hydraulic Drive: Effect of Oil on Efficiency in Sub-Zero Conditions

1
School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14400, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2
Faculty of Industrial Automation and Electrical Engineering, Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University ETU “LETI”, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
3
Evonik Industries AG, Kirschenallee, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Collection)
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Abstract

Direct driven hydraulic drives (DDH) have the advantages of compact high power density in hydraulic systems and flexible control of electric motors. These advantages can benefit non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) applications. However, maintaining high efficiency while working in sub-zero conditions with NRMM is challenging. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of hydraulic oil on the efficiency of a DDH in a cold environment for an NRMM application. In the DDH setup, the speed and position control of a double-acting cylinder was implemented directly with an electric motor drive in a closed-loop system without the conventional control valves. Efficiency measurements of the DDH setup with two oils (conventional multi-grade and high-performance) were conducted under different operating conditions (speed and payload) and environmental conditions (temperature in °C). The paper provides an evaluation of the electro-hydraulic system and a discussion on the usage of hydraulic oil by non-road mobile working machines in sub-zero conditions. An experimental investigation demonstrated an improvement in efficiency of 5%-unit at 22 °C, from 2%-unit to 5%-unit at 3 °C, and of almost a 10%-unit at temperatures below zero (−10 °C) by changing oil. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydraulic actuator; hydraulic drives; electric drives; efficiency; losses; zonal hydraulics; direct driven hydraulics; non-road mobile working machines; low temperature; high-performance oil hydraulic actuator; hydraulic drives; electric drives; efficiency; losses; zonal hydraulics; direct driven hydraulics; non-road mobile working machines; low temperature; high-performance oil
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Minav, T.; Heikkinen, J.; Schimmel, T.; Pietola, M. Direct Driven Hydraulic Drive: Effect of Oil on Efficiency in Sub-Zero Conditions. Energies 2019, 12, 219.

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