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Solar Water Heating Systems Applied to High-Rise Buildings—Lessons from Experiences in China

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Shanghai Sanxiang impression co., Ltd., Shanghai 200434, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3078; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163078
Received: 16 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Buildings)
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Abstract

High-rise buildings have a significant impact on the surrounding environment. Building-integrated solar water heating (SWH) systems are effective ways to use renewable energy in buildings. Impediments, such as security concerns, aesthetics and functionality, make it difficult to apply SWH systems in high-rise buildings. At present, only China uses SWH systems on a large scale in such buildings. What are China’s experiences and lessons learned in applying SWH systems in high-rises? Are these experiences scalable to other countries? This study used a combination of field investigation, literature review and case study to summarize 36 systems that had been in operation for 1–14 years. System types, collector types, installation methods, types of auxiliary heat sources, economic performance and various basic principles were summarized. The economic performance of SWH systems in high-rise buildings was analyzed and verified by a case study in Shanghai. The results show that the installation of SWH systems in high-rise buildings is feasible and reliable. Individual household systems (61%) were more popular than centralized systems (25%) and hybrid systems account (14%). The average area of solar collectors per household was 2.17 m2/household, the average design solar fraction was 52%. Flat plate solar collectors (53%) was the most commonly used collector, while electric heating elements (89%) were the most common auxiliary heat sources for SWH systems, followed by gas water heaters and air source heat pumps. The cost of SWH systems per m2 of a building area was between 22 CNY/m2 to 75 CNY/m2. China’s unique practical experience gives a reference for other countries in their efforts to make high-rise buildings more sustainable. View Full-Text
Keywords: Solar water heating system; high-rise building; building-integrated solar thermal; solar fraction; levelized cost of heat Solar water heating system; high-rise building; building-integrated solar thermal; solar fraction; levelized cost of heat
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Huang, J.; Fan, J.; Furbo, S.; Li, L. Solar Water Heating Systems Applied to High-Rise Buildings—Lessons from Experiences in China. Energies 2019, 12, 3078.

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