# Feedforward-Double Feedback Control System of Dual-Switch Boost DC/DC Converters for Fuel Cell Vehicles

^{1}

^{2}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Topology and Working Principle of DC/DC Convertor for Fuel Cell Vehicles

#### 2.1. Topology of Converter

_{1}, K

_{2}; two energy storage inductors L

_{1}, L

_{2}; a diode D, and an output filter capacitor C

_{1}. The two power switch devices are turned on or off simultaneously. The structure is simple, and the boost voltage is relatively high, which can meet the basic requirements of the DC/DC converter for fuel cell vehicles.

_{1}and L

_{2}are equal, and the parameters of the two MOSFETs K

_{1}and K

_{2}are equal and simultaneously turned on or off. In addition, the ON and OFF states of the MOSFETs correspond to different states.

_{1}and L

_{2}, K

_{2}and L

_{1}are connected in parallel with the input power source E to form the first loop. The filter capacitor C

_{1}and load Z constitute a second loop. The turn-on voltage drop of the MOSFET is ignored. Inductors L

_{1}and L

_{2}are equivalent to two current sources, the voltage of which is the input supply voltage E. The direction of voltage and current is the associated reference direction, at which time the inductor absorbs energy. In one cycle T

_{S}, the two switches are turned on for D × T

_{S}, where D is the duty cycle of the PWM. If the inductor current is assumed to be constant, then I

_{L}

_{1}= I

_{L}

_{2}= I

_{L}. The energy absorbed by the inductors L

_{1}and L

_{2}is given by:

_{1}and L

_{2}are connected in series. Energy is supplied to the filter capacitor C

_{1}and the load through the diode D, and the capacitor replenishes energy.

_{1}and L

_{2}, the input power source E, the diode D, the filter capacitor C

_{1}, and the load constitute a loop. The voltage directions of the inductors L

_{1}and L

_{2}are not correlated with the current direction, at which time energy is released. The energy released by each inductor is given by:

#### 2.2. Converter Mode of Operation

_{0}–t

_{1}stage is the ON stage of the K

_{1}and K

_{2}MOSFETs. At this stage, the diode D is in the cut-off state, and the voltage stress is E + U. The voltage at both ends of inductors L

_{1}and L

_{2}is the input voltage E, and the inductor current increases linearly because the filter capacitor supplies energy to the load separately. Therefore, the capacitor voltage is reduced. Taking inductance L

_{1}as an example, the current changes in this state are expressed as follows:

_{S}, the current of inductors L

_{1}and L

_{2}is the maximum, and the current changes as follows:

_{1}is expressed as follows:

_{1}to t

_{2}. Diode D is turned on, and the inductance and input voltage simultaneously provide energy to the load and filter capacitor. At this stage, the inductance current can be expressed as follows:

_{1}will be increased because of the energy supplement. The voltage equation of capacitor C

_{1}is as follows:

## 3. Modeling of DC/DC Converters for Fuel Cell Vehicles

_{L}

_{1}are DC steady-state quantities, and $\widehat{D}$, $\widehat{U}$, $\widehat{E}$, and $\widehat{{I}_{L1}}$ denote the amount of AC small signal disturbance. Substituting Equation (14) into Equation (13) gives:

_{1}is not only affected by self-fluctuation but also by input voltage fluctuation and duty cycle fluctuation.

_{L}

_{1}is:

_{L}

_{1}is:

_{L}

_{1}to output voltage U is:

## 4. Feedforward Compensation of DC/DC Converter-Double Feedback Controller Design

_{C}

_{1}to obtain the reference amount ${I}_{L1\_f}$ of the inductor current. The error e2 of the inductor current with respect to its reference amount passes through the controller G

_{C}

_{2}to obtain the control amount $\stackrel{\wedge}{D}$.

## 5. Simulation and Experimental Results Analysis

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 4.**Relationship between the boost ratio of a dual-switch boost converter and duty cycle of MOSFET switch.

**Figure 13.**Output voltage response when two different control strategies are used to handle input voltage disturbance. (

**a**) Voltage feedback control system; and (

**b**) feedforward-double feedback control system.

**Figure 14.**System output response under different control strategies. (

**a**) Voltage feedback control system output; (

**b**) feedforward-double feedback control system output; and (

**c**) sliding mode control system output.

**Figure 17.**System output response under different control strategies. (

**a**) Voltage feedback control system output; and (

**b**) feedforward-double feedback control system output.

Name | Parameter |
---|---|

MOSFET (IFR640N) | Breakdown voltage V_{DSS} 200 V |

Conducted resistance R_{DS} (on) 0.15 Ω | |

Source current I_{S} 18 A | |

Diode (DFE 10 I 600PM) | Maximum reverse voltage V_{RRM} 600 V |

Forward voltage drop V_{F} 1.5 V | |

Conduction internal resistance r_{F} 28.7 mΩ | |

Inductance | 3.5 mH |

Capacitance | 47 μF |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wu, X.; Yu, B.; Du, J.; Shi, W. Feedforward-Double Feedback Control System of Dual-Switch Boost DC/DC Converters for Fuel Cell Vehicles. *Energies* **2019**, *12*, 2886.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152886

**AMA Style**

Wu X, Yu B, Du J, Shi W. Feedforward-Double Feedback Control System of Dual-Switch Boost DC/DC Converters for Fuel Cell Vehicles. *Energies*. 2019; 12(15):2886.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152886

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wu, Xiaogang, Boyang Yu, Jiuyu Du, and Wenwen Shi. 2019. "Feedforward-Double Feedback Control System of Dual-Switch Boost DC/DC Converters for Fuel Cell Vehicles" *Energies* 12, no. 15: 2886.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152886