Next Article in Journal
A New Outer-Rotor Hybrid-Excited Flux-Switching Machine Employing the HTS Homopolar Topology
Next Article in Special Issue
Resilience Informed Integrity Management of Wind Turbine Parks
Previous Article in Journal
Innovation in an Existing Backpressure Turbine for Ensure Better Sustainability and Flexible Operation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Maintenance Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines Based on an Opportunistic Maintenance Strategy
Article Menu
Issue 14 (July-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Risk Assessment and Value of Action Analysis for Icing Conditions of Wind Turbines Close to Highways

Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Department 7: Safety of Structures, Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, 12205 Berlin Germany
Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(14), 2653;
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
PDF [3805 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]


The paper presents research results from the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network INFRASTAR in the field of reliability approaches for decision-making for wind turbines and bridges. This paper addresses the application of Bayesian decision analysis for installation of heating systems in wind turbine blades in cases where an ice detection system is already installed in order to allow wind turbines to be placed close to highways. Generally, application of ice detection and heating systems for wind turbines is very relevant in cases where the wind turbines are planned to be placed close to urban areas and highways, where risks need to be considered due to icing events, which may lead to consequences including human fatality, functional disruptions, and/or economic losses. The risk of people being killed in a car passing on highways near a wind turbine due to blades parts or ice pieces being thrown away in cases of over-icing is considered in this paper. The probability of being killed per kilometer and per year is considered for three cases: blade parts thrown away as a result of a partial or total failure of a blade, ice thrown away in two cases, i.e., of stopped wind turbines and of wind turbines in operation. Risks due to blade parts being thrown away cannot be avoided, since low strengths of material, maintenance or manufacturing errors, mechanical or electrical failures may result in failure of a blade or blade part. The blade (parts) thrown away from wind turbines in operation imply possible consequences/fatalities for people near the wind turbines, including in areas close to highways. Similar consequences are relevant for ice being thrown away from wind turbine blades during icing situations. In this paper, we examine the question as to whether it is valuable to put a heating system on the blades in addition to ice detection systems. This is especially interesting in countries with limited space for placing wind turbines; in addition, it is considered if higher power production can be obtained due to less downtime if a heating system is installed. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk assessment; value of action analysis; icing conditions; wind turbine; blade; probability; highway risk assessment; value of action analysis; icing conditions; wind turbine; blade; probability; highway

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rastayesh, S.; Long, L.; Dalsgaard Sørensen, J.; Thöns, S. Risk Assessment and Value of Action Analysis for Icing Conditions of Wind Turbines Close to Highways. Energies 2019, 12, 2653.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top