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Energy-Effective Cooperative and Reliable Delivery Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
2
Department of Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar KPK 25120, Pakistan
3
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
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Department of Computer System and Technology, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kualalumpur 50603, Malaysia
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Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University, Islamabad 44500, Pakistan
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Department of Information Technology, The University of Haripur, Haripur 22620, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132630
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
Underwater deployed sensors nodes are energy-constrained. Therefore, energy efficiency becomes crucial in underwater wireless sensor networks (U-WSNs). The adverse channel corrupts the packets and challenges their reliability. To handle these challenges, two routing schemes are introduced in this paper. They are effective energy and reliable delivery (EERD) and cooperative effective energy and reliable delivery (CoEERD). In EERD, the packets follow single-path routing and the best forwarder node is selected using a weight function such that packets are transferred via the reliable paths with low energy usage. Packet transfer via a single route in EERD has, however, compromised reliability as the undersea links bear harshness and unpredictability. Therefore, the CoEERD scheme adds cooperative routing to EERD, in which a relay node is introduced between a source–destination pair. The destination requests the relay when the packets it gets from the source are corrupted beyond a threshold value. Selection of weight function is unique and considers many factors to ensure low energy usage with reliability while considering nodes for data transfer. This also helps in selecting a single relay node rather than many relays in the conventional cooperative routing model. Based on simulation results, the EERD and CoEERD protocols have improved performance in energy usage, reliable packet transfer and delay. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy efficiency; network reliability; routing protocols; U-WSNs energy efficiency; network reliability; routing protocols; U-WSNs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ullah, U.; Khan, A.; Zareei, M.; Ali, I.; Khattak, H.A.; Din, I.U. Energy-Effective Cooperative and Reliable Delivery Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Energies 2019, 12, 2630. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132630

AMA Style

Ullah U, Khan A, Zareei M, Ali I, Khattak HA, Din IU. Energy-Effective Cooperative and Reliable Delivery Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Energies. 2019; 12(13):2630. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132630

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ullah, Ubaid; Khan, Anwar; Zareei, Mahdi; Ali, Ihsan; Khattak, Hasan A.; Din, Ikram U. 2019. "Energy-Effective Cooperative and Reliable Delivery Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks" Energies 12, no. 13: 2630. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132630

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