The energy transition towards renewable and more distributed power production triggers the need for grid and storage expansion on all voltage levels. Today’s power system planning focuses on certain voltage levels or spatial resolutions. In this work we present an open source software tool eGo
which is able to optimize grid and storage expansion throughout all voltage levels in a developed top-down approach. Operation and investment costs are minimized by applying a multi-period linear optimal power flow considering the grid infrastructure of the extra-high and high-voltage (380 to 110 kV) level. Hence, the common differentiation of transmission and distribution grid is partly dissolved, integrating the high-voltage level into the optimization problem. Consecutively, optimized curtailment and storage units are allocated in the medium voltage grid in order to lower medium and low voltage grid expansion needs, that are consequently determined. Here, heuristic optimization methods using the non-linear power flow were developed. Applying the tool on future scenarios we derived cost-efficient grid and storage expansion for all voltage levels in Germany. Due to the integrated approach, storage expansion and curtailment can significantly lower grid expansion costs in medium and low voltage grids and at the same time serve the optimal functioning of the overall system. Nevertheless, the cost-reducing effect for the whole of Germany was marginal. Instead, the consideration of realistic, spatially differentiated time series led to substantial overall savings.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited