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Energy Consumption and Trade Openness Nexus in Egypt: Asymmetry Analysis

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Department of Marketing, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 165, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Agriculture Economics, Kafr Elshiekh University, Kafr Elsheikh 33511, Egypt
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Department of Finance, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 165, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(10), 2018; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12102018
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
Trade openness may support the economic growth of any country but its environmental effects due to increasing energy consumption cannot be ignored. This research hypothesizes the asymmetrical effects of both economic growth and trade openness on the energy consumption of Egypt from 1971–2014. Our estimates suggest that both economic growth and trade openness have asymmetrical effects on the energy consumption in both long and short runs because magnitude of the effects are found unequal. Both increasing and decreasing economic growth have positive effects on the energy consumption in the long and short runs except an insignificant effect of decreasing economic growth in the short run. Increasing and decreasing trade openness have also positive effects on the energy consumption in the long and short runs except an insignificant effect of decreasing trade openness in the long run. The increasing energy consumption, as results of increasing economic growth and/or trade openness, may have environmental consequence. Therefore, we recommend the Egyptian government to diversify the energy consumption from fossil fuel sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy consumption; trade openness; economic growth; asymmetrical effects energy consumption; trade openness; economic growth; asymmetrical effects
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Alkhateeb, T.T.Y.; Mahmood, H. Energy Consumption and Trade Openness Nexus in Egypt: Asymmetry Analysis. Energies 2019, 12, 2018.

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