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Energies 2019, 12(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010110

Thermodynamic Efficiency Gains and their Role as a Key ‘Engine of Economic Growth’

1
Department of Environment and Geography, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5NG, UK
2
Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3
Low Carbon Energy Research Group, School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
4
Centre for Integrated Energy Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
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Abstract

Increasing energy efficiency is commonly viewed as providing a key stimulus to economic growth, through investment in efficient technologies, reducing energy use and costs, enabling productivity gains, and generating jobs. However, this view is received wisdom, as empirical validation has remained elusive. A central problem is that current energy-economy models are not thermodynamically consistent, since they do not include the transformation of energy in physical terms from primary to end-use stages. In response, we develop the UK MAcroeconometric Resource COnsumption (MARCO-UK) model, the first econometric economy-wide model to explicitly include thermodynamic efficiency and end energy use (energy services). We find gains in thermodynamic efficiency are a key ‘engine of economic growth’, contributing 25% of the increases to gross domestic product (GDP) in the UK over the period of 1971–2013. This confirms an underrecognised role for energy in enabling economic growth. We attribute most of the thermodynamic efficiency gains to endogenised technical change. We also provide new insights into how the ‘efficiency-led growth engine’ mechanism works in the whole economy. Our results imply a slowdown in thermodynamic efficiency gains will constrain economic growth, whilst future energy-GDP decoupling will be harder to achieve than we suppose. This confirms the imperative for economic models to become thermodynamically consistent. View Full-Text
Keywords: Energy efficiency; economic growth; thermodynamics; energy-economy modelling; energy demand; exergy Energy efficiency; economic growth; thermodynamics; energy-economy modelling; energy demand; exergy
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Sakai, M.; Brockway, P.E.; Barrett, J.R.; Taylor, P.G. Thermodynamic Efficiency Gains and their Role as a Key ‘Engine of Economic Growth’. Energies 2019, 12, 110.

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