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Integrated Energy Planning with a High Share of Variable Renewable Energy Sources for a Caribbean Island

1
Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
2
Power System Design & Studies Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, MS ESIF200, Golden, CO 80401, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092193
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Energy System Modeling 2018)
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Abstract

Although it can be complex to integrate variable renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaics into an energy system, the potential benefits are large, as it can help reduce fuel imports, balance the trade, and mitigate the negative impacts in terms of climate change. In order to try to integrate a very large share of variable renewable energy sources into the energy system, an integrated energy planning approach was used, including ice storage in the cooling sector, a smart charging option in the transport sector, and an excess capacity of reverse osmosis technology that was utilised in order to provide flexibility to the energy system. A unit commitment and economic dispatch tool (PLEXOS) was used, and the model was run with both 5 min and 1 h time resolutions. The case study was carried out for a typical Caribbean island nation, based on data derived from measured data from Aruba. The results showed that 78.1% of the final electricity demand in 2020 was met by variable renewable energy sources, having 1.0% of curtailed energy in the energy system. The total economic cost of the modelled energy system was similar to the current energy system, dominated by the fossil fuel imports. The results are relevant for many populated islands and island nations. View Full-Text
Keywords: variable renewable energy; integrated energy modelling; Caribbean energy system; island energy system; smart charging; ice storage; oil imports; unit commitment and economic dispatch; energy system flexibility; flexible water desalination variable renewable energy; integrated energy modelling; Caribbean energy system; island energy system; smart charging; ice storage; oil imports; unit commitment and economic dispatch; energy system flexibility; flexible water desalination
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Dominković, D.F.; Stark, G.; Hodge, B.-M.; Pedersen, A.S. Integrated Energy Planning with a High Share of Variable Renewable Energy Sources for a Caribbean Island. Energies 2018, 11, 2193.

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