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Energies 2018, 11(9), 2191;

Li-Ion Battery Fire Hazards and Safety Strategies

Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
National Research Base of Intelligent Manufacturing Service, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067, China
National Active Distribution Network Technology Research Center, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10 Years Energies - Horizon 2028)
Full-Text   |   PDF [523 KB, uploaded 22 August 2018]   |  


In the past five years, there have been numerous cases of Li-ion battery fires and explosions, resulting in property damage and bodily injuries. This paper discusses the thermal runaway mechanism and presents various thermal runaway mitigation approaches, including separators, flame retardants, and safety vents. The paper then overviews measures for extinguishing fires, and concludes with a set of recommendations for future research and development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Li-ion battery; energy conversion and storage; fire incidents; safety issues; separator shutdown; flame retardants; venting Li-ion battery; energy conversion and storage; fire incidents; safety issues; separator shutdown; flame retardants; venting

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kong, L.; Li, C.; Jiang, J.; Pecht, M.G. Li-Ion Battery Fire Hazards and Safety Strategies. Energies 2018, 11, 2191.

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