Next Article in Journal
Energy Revolution for Our Common Future: An Evaluation of the Emerging International Renewable Energy Law
Next Article in Special Issue
In Operando Neutron Radiography Analysis of a High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Based on a Phosphoric Acid-Doped Polybenzimidazole Membrane Using the Hydrogen-Deuterium Contrast Method
Previous Article in Journal
Thermal Comfort, Energy and Cost Impacts of PMV Control Considering Individual Metabolic Rate Variations in Residential Building
Previous Article in Special Issue
Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Motors for Electric Vehicles (EV) Traction Considering Driving Cycles
Open AccessArticle

Integrated Sizing and Energy Management for Four-Wheel-Independently-Actuated Electric Vehicles Considering Realistic Constructed Driving Cycles

by Zhenpo Wang 1,2, Changhui Qu 1,2, Lei Zhang 1,2,*, Jin Zhang 1,2 and Wen Yu 1,2
1
National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071768
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Collection)
This paper presents an integrated optimization framework of sizing and energy management for four-wheel-independently-actuated electric vehicles. The optimization framework consists of an inner and an outer layer that are responsible for energy management, i.e., torque allocation, and powertrain parameter optimizations. The optimal torque allocation in the inner layer is achieved via the dynamic programming (DP) method while the desirable powertrain parameters in the outer layer are pursued based on the exhaustive method. In order to verify the proposed optimization framework, two driving cycles are constructed to represent the comprehensive and realistic driving conditions. One cycle is built by combining six typical driving cycles, which cover urban, high-way and rural driving styles to enhance representativeness. The other one is synthesized using the Markov chain method based on a vast quantity of real-time operating data of electric vehicles in Beijing. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy decreases the power consumption by 15.1% and 13.3%, respectively, in the two driving cycles, compared to the non-optimal, even-torque-allocation strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: four-wheel-independently-actuated electric vehicles; energy management; dynamic programming; Markov chain four-wheel-independently-actuated electric vehicles; energy management; dynamic programming; Markov chain
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Z.; Qu, C.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, J.; Yu, W. Integrated Sizing and Energy Management for Four-Wheel-Independently-Actuated Electric Vehicles Considering Realistic Constructed Driving Cycles. Energies 2018, 11, 1768.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop