# Improvement in Harmonic Compensation of a Smart Charger with a Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control-Based Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Single-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Feeders

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Smart Charger for EVs

#### 2.1. Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control Strategy for Harmonic Compensation

#### 2.2. Improvement in Harmonic Compensation for a Smart Charger

## 3. Simulation Results

- ${K}_{\mathrm{P}}$ = 0.6, ${T}_{\mathrm{I}}$ = 0.03 s, and ${T}_{\mathrm{D}}$ = 0.01 ms are used in the PID controller of the CDCVC;
- ${K}_{\mathrm{P}}$ = 0.06 and ${T}_{\mathrm{I}}$ = 8 ms are used in the PI controllers in d-q coordinates for both fundamental and the 3rd harmonic components of the currents; and
- ${K}_{\mathrm{P}}$ = 0.15 and ${T}_{\mathrm{I}}$ = 3 ms are used in the PI controller for the current feedback of the bidirectional dc-dc converter.

## 4. Experimental Results

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Control circuit diagram of the previously proposed constant dc-capacitor voltage-control (CDCVC) strategy.

**Figure 3.**Control circuit diagram for the SC in Figure 1, if the single-phase pq theory is applied.

**Figure 4.**Simulation results for the previously proposed SC during a battery discharging operation from Reference [2].

**Figure 5.**Spectra of the source currents from the same simulation as Figure 4.

**Figure 6.**Proposed control circuit diagram for the SC of Figure 1.

**Figure 7.**Simulation results for the SC in Figure 1 during a battery charging operation.

**Figure 8.**Simulation results during a battery discharging operation for the SC in Figure 1.

**Figure 9.**Simulation results for the SC in Figure 1 without the battery connected; when the SC performs as an active power-line conditioner.

**Figure 10.**Block diagram of the constructed experimental model for the SC in Figure 1.

**Figure 11.**Experimental results during battery charging for the SC in Figure 10.

**Figure 12.**Experimental results during battery discharging for the SC in Figure 10.

**Figure 13.**Experimental results for the SC in Figure 10 without the battery connected.

Item | Symbol | Value | |
---|---|---|---|

Simulation | Experiment | ||

Filter inductor for three-leg PWM rectifier | ${L}_{\mathrm{f}1}$ | 0.46 mH | |

Filter capacitor for three-leg PWM rectifier | ${\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{f}1}$ | 10.4 $\mathsf{\mu}$F | |

Switching inductor for three-leg PWM rectifier | ${L}_{\mathrm{S}1}$ | 1.0 mH | |

dc capacitor | ${\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{DC}}$ | 2700 $\mathsf{\mu}$F | |

dc-capacitor voltage | ${V}_{\mathrm{DC}}^{*}$ | 385 Vdc | 360 Vdc |

Switching inductor for dc-dc converter | ${L}_{\mathrm{S}2}$ | 4.4 mH | |

Filter capacitor for dc-dc converter | ${\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{f}2}$ | 1000 $\mathsf{\mu}$F | |

Battery voltage | ${V}_{\mathrm{bat}}$ | 360 Vdc | 257 Vdc |

Inductor current for dc-dc converter | ${I}_{\mathrm{LS}2}^{*}$ | 5 Adc | 4.29 Adc |

Internal resistance of battery | r | 72 m$\mathsf{\Omega}$ | |

Switching frequency | ${f}_{\mathrm{SW}}$ | 9.36 kHz | |

Dead time | ${T}_{\mathrm{d}}$ | 3.5 $\mathsf{\mu}$s |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Nishikawa, K.; Ikeda, F.; Okamoto, Y.; Yamada, H.; Tanaka, T.; Okamoto, M.
Improvement in Harmonic Compensation of a Smart Charger with a Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control-Based Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Single-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Feeders. *Energies* **2018**, *11*, 1604.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061604

**AMA Style**

Nishikawa K, Ikeda F, Okamoto Y, Yamada H, Tanaka T, Okamoto M.
Improvement in Harmonic Compensation of a Smart Charger with a Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control-Based Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Single-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Feeders. *Energies*. 2018; 11(6):1604.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061604

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Nishikawa, Kei, Fuka Ikeda, Yuki Okamoto, Hiroaki Yamada, Toshihiko Tanaka, and Masayuki Okamoto.
2018. "Improvement in Harmonic Compensation of a Smart Charger with a Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control-Based Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Single-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Feeders" *Energies* 11, no. 6: 1604.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061604