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Energies 2018, 11(5), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051257

Comparing Urban and Rural Household CO2 Emissions—Case from China’s Four Megacities: Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing

1,2,* , 3,4,* and 5,*
1
Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment for the Ministry of Education, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
2
Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
3
School of Economics & Management, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
4
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
5
Institutes of Science and Developments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Carbon Emission Related Issues)
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Abstract

CO2 emissions caused by household consumption have become one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Studying household CO2 emissions (HCEs) is of great significance to energy conservation and emissions reduction. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the direct and indirect CO2 emissions by urban and rural households in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing. The results show that urban total HCEs are larger than rural total HCEs for the four megacities. Urban total per capita household CO2 emissions (PHCEs) are larger than rural total PHCEs in Beijing, Tianjin, and Chongqing, while rural total PHCEs in Shanghai are larger than urban total PHCEs. Electricity and hot water production and supply was the largest contributor of indirect HCEs for both rural and urban households. Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing outsourced a large amount of indirect CO2 emissions to their neighboring provinces. View Full-Text
Keywords: household CO2 emissions (HCEs); per capita household CO2 emissions (PHCEs); input–output model household CO2 emissions (HCEs); per capita household CO2 emissions (PHCEs); input–output model
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Huang, R.; Zhang, S.; Liu, C. Comparing Urban and Rural Household CO2 Emissions—Case from China’s Four Megacities: Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Energies 2018, 11, 1257.

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