The use of lithium batteries for power and energy-hungry applications has risen drastically in recent years. For such applications, it is necessary to connect the batteries in large assemblies of cells in series and parallel. With a large number of cells operating together, it is necessary to understand their intrinsic variabilities, not only at the initial stage but also upon aging. In this study, we studied a batch of commercial cells to address their initial cell-to-cell variations and also the variations induced by cycling. To do so, we not only tracked several metrics associated with cell performance, the maximum capacity, the resistance, and the rate capability but also the degradation mechanism via a non-invasive quantification of the loss of lithium inventory (LLI), the loss of active material (LAM) and the kinetic degradation on both electrodes. We found that, even with small initial cell-to-cell variations, significant variations will be observed upon aging because the cells degrade at a different pace. We also observed that these variations were not correlated with the initial variations.
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