A DC cable short-circuit fault is the most severe fault type that occurs in DC distribution networks, having a negative impact on transmission equipment and the stability of system operation. When a short-circuit fault occurs in a DC distribution network based on a voltage source converter (VSC), an in-depth analysis and characterization of the fault is of great significance to establish relay protection, devise fault current limiters and realize fault location. However, research on short-circuit faults in VSC-based low-voltage DC (LVDC) systems, which are greatly different from high-voltage DC (HVDC) systems, is currently stagnant. The existing research in this area is not conclusive, with further study required to explain findings in HVDC systems that do not fit with simulated results or lack thorough theoretical analyses. In this paper, faults are divided into transient- and steady-state faults, and detailed formulas are provided. A more thorough and practical theoretical analysis with fewer errors can be used to develop protection schemes and short-circuit fault locations based on transient- and steady-state analytic formulas. Compared to the classical methods, the fault analyses in this paper provide more accurate computed results of fault current. Thus, the fault location method can rapidly evaluate the distance between the fault and converter. The analyses of error increase and an improved handshaking method coordinating with the proposed location method are presented.
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