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Energies 2018, 11(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11020335

Multifunctional Composites for Future Energy Storage in Aerospace Structures

1
German Aerospace Center (DLR e. V.), Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems, Lilienthalplatz 7, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute for Particle Technology, Volkmaroder Str. 5, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards a Transformation to Sustainable Aviation Systems)
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Abstract

Multifunctionalization of fiber-reinforced composites, especially by adding energy storage capabilities, is a promising approach to realize lightweight structural energy storages for future transport vehicles. Compared to conventional energy storage systems, energy density can be increased by reducing parasitic masses of non-energy-storing components and by benefitting from the composite meso- and microarchitectures. In this paper, the most relevant existing approaches towards multifunctional energy storages are reviewed and subdivided into five groups by distinguishing their degree of integration and their scale of multifunctionalization. By introducing a modified range equation for battery-powered electric aircrafts, possible range extensions enabled by multifunctionalization are estimated. Furthermore, general and aerospace specific potentials of multifunctional energy storages are discussed. Representing an intermediate degree of structural integration, experimental results for a multifunctional energy-storing glass fiber-reinforced composite based on the ceramic electrolyte Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 are presented. Cyclic voltammetry tests are used to characterize the double-layer behavior combined with galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements for capacitance calculation. The capacitance is observed to be unchanged after 1500 charge–discharge cycles revealing a promising potential for future applications. Furthermore, the mechanical properties are assessed by means of four-point bending and tensile tests. Additionally, the influence of mechanical loads on the electrical properties is also investigated, demonstrating the storage stability of the composites. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural energy storages; multifunctional power composites; Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 solid electrolyte; electrical properties; mechanical properties structural energy storages; multifunctional power composites; Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 solid electrolyte; electrical properties; mechanical properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Adam, T.J.; Liao, G.; Petersen, J.; Geier, S.; Finke, B.; Wierach, P.; Kwade, A.; Wiedemann, M. Multifunctional Composites for Future Energy Storage in Aerospace Structures. Energies 2018, 11, 335.

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