Next Article in Journal
Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow through Fractal-Based Discrete Fractured Network
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimization of the Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil with Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using Response Surface Methodology
Previous Article in Journal
Speed Synchronous Control of Multiple Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on an Improved Cross-Coupling Structure
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(2), 284;

Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Assessment in Warmer Urban Areas in Mexico

Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Córdoba, CEIA3, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
Faculty of Engineering, Campus Coatzacoalcos, University of Veracruz, Veracruz 96535, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 21 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Generation of Renewable Energy and Energy Saving in Cities)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3471 KB, uploaded 24 January 2018]   |  


The aim of this study is to examine the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic system (SAPVS) for electricity generation in urban areas in Southern Mexico. In Mexico, an urban area is defined as an area where more than 2500 inhabitants live. Due to constant migration from the countryside to the cities, the number of inhabitants of urban localities has been increasing. Global horizontal irradiation (GHI) data were recorded every 10 min during 2014–2016 in Coatzacoalcos in the state of Veracruz located on 18°08′09″ N and 94°27′48″ W. In this study, batteries represented 77% of the total cost, 12 PV panels of 310 W could export 5.41 MWh to the grid, and an inverter with an integrated controller and charger was selected, which decreased the initial cost. The city of Coatzacoalcos was chosen because the average annual temperature is 28°, with an average relative humidity of 75% and an average irradiance of 5.3 kWh/m2/day. An emission factor 0.505 tCO2/MWh of greenhouse gases (GHG) were obtained, based on the power system, the reduction of net annual GHG would be 11 tCO2 and a financial revenue of 36.951 × 103 $/tCO2 would be obtained. Financial parameters such as a 36.3% Internal Rate Return (IRR) and 3.4 years payback show the financial viability of this investment. SAPVSs in urban areas in Mexico could be a benefit as long as housing has a high consumption of electricity. View Full-Text
Keywords: stand-alone; urban areas; Mexico; photovoltaic system stand-alone; urban areas; Mexico; photovoltaic system

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Perea-Moreno, A.-J.; Hernandez-Escobedo, Q.; Garrido, J.; Verdugo-Diaz, J.D. Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Assessment in Warmer Urban Areas in Mexico. Energies 2018, 11, 284.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top