This survey paper reviews recent trends in green vehicle electrification and digitalization, as part of a special section on “Energy Storage Systems and Power Conversion Electronics for E-Transportation and Smart Grid”, led by the authors. First, the energy demand and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) are reviewed, including the analysis of the trends of battery technology and of the recharging issues considering the characteristics of the power grid. Solutions to integrate EV electricity demand in power grids are also proposed. Integrated electric/electronic (E/E) architectures for hybrid EVs (HEVs) and full EVs are discussed, detailing innovations emerging for all components (power converters, electric machines, batteries, and battery-management-systems). 48 V HEVs are emerging as the most promising solution for the short-term electrification of current vehicles based on internal combustion engines. The increased digitalization and connectivity of electrified cars is posing cyber-security issues that are discussed in detail, together with some countermeasures to mitigate them, thus tracing the path for future on-board computing and control platforms.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited