Next Article in Journal
A Three-Stage Procedure for Controlled Islanding to Prevent Wide-Area Blackouts
Next Article in Special Issue
A Review of Roofing Methods: Construction Features, Heat Reduction, Payback Period and Climatic Responsiveness
Previous Article in Journal
A New GIS-Based Algorithm to Support Initial Transmitter Layout Design in Open-Pit Mines
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113064

Driving Cycles Based on Fuel Consumption

1
Energy and Climate Change Research Group, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey 64849, Nuevo León, Mexico
2
Grupo de Investigación en Gestión Energética, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Cl. 27 #10-02, Pereira 660003, Risaralda, Colombia
3
Universidad de Monterrey, Av. Morones Prieto 4500 Pte., San Pedro Garza García 66238, Nuevo León, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient and Smart Cities 2019)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1270 KB, uploaded 7 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Type-approval driving cycles currently available, such as the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC), cannot be used to estimate real fuel consumption nor emissions from vehicles in a region of interest because they do not describe its local driving pattern. We defined a driving cycle (DC) as the time series of speeds that when reproduced by a vehicle, the resulting fuel consumption and emissions are similar to the average fuel consumption and emissions of all vehicles of the same technology driven in that region. We also declared that the driving pattern can be described by a set of characteristic parameters (CPs) such as mean speed, positive kinetic energy and percentage of idling time. Then, we proposed a method to construct those local DC that use fuel consumption as criterion. We hypothesized that by using this criterion, the resulting DC describes, implicitly, the driving pattern in that region. Aiming to demonstrate this hypothesis, we monitored the location, speed, altitude, and fuel consumption of a fleet of 15 vehicles of similar technology, during 8 months of normal operation, in four regions with diverse topography, traveling on roads with diverse level of service. In every region, we considered 1000 instances of samples made of m trips, where m varied from 4 to 40. We found that the CPs of the local driving cycle constructed using the fuel-based method exhibit small relative differences (<15%) with respect to the CPs that describe the driving patterns in that region. This result demonstrates the hypothesis that using the fuel based method the resulting local DC exhibits CPs similar to the CPs that describe the driving pattern of the region under study. View Full-Text
Keywords: driving patterns; characteristic parameters; fuel consumption driving patterns; characteristic parameters; fuel consumption
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Huertas, J.I.; Giraldo, M.; Quirama, L.F.; Díaz, J. Driving Cycles Based on Fuel Consumption. Energies 2018, 11, 3064.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top