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Article

Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Upward Flow through a Vertical Pipe: Influence of Pressure Drop on the Measurement of Fluid Flow Rate

1
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak 32610, Malaysia
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, Kuala Lumpur 50728, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(11), 2937; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112937
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer)
The accurate estimation of pressure drop during multiphase fluid flow in vertical pipes has been widely recognized as a critical problem in oil wells completion design. The flow of fluids through the vertical tubing strings causes great losses of energy through friction, where the value of this loss depends on fluid flow viscosity and the size of the conduit. A number of friction factor correlations, which have acceptably accurate results in large diameter pipes, are significantly in error when applied to smaller diameter pipes. Normally, the pressure loss occurs due to friction between the fluid flow and the pipe walls. The estimation of the pressure gradients during the multiphase flow of fluids is very complex due to the variation of many fluid parameters along the vertical pipe. Other complications relate to the numerous flow regimes and the variabilities of the fluid interfaces involved. Accordingly, knowledge about pressure drops and friction factors is required to determine the fluid flow rate of the oil wells. This paper describes the influences of the pressure drop on the measurement of the fluid flow by estimating the friction factor using different empirical friction correlations. Field experimental work was performed at the well site to predict the fluid flow rate of 48 electrical submersible pump (ESP) oil wells, using the newly developed mathematical model. Using Darcy and Colebrook friction factor correlations, the results show high average relative errors, exceeding ±18.0%, in predicted liquid flow rate (oil and water). In gas rate, more than 77% of the data exceeded ±10.0% relative error to the predicted gas rate. For the Blasius correlation, the results showed the predicted liquid flow rate was in agreement with measured values, where the average relative error was less than ±18.0%, and for the gas rate, 68% of the data showed more than ±10% relative error. View Full-Text
Keywords: pressure loss; pressure drop; friction factor; multiphase flow; flow rate; flow regime pressure loss; pressure drop; friction factor; multiphase flow; flow rate; flow regime
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ganat, T.A.; Hrairi, M. Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Upward Flow through a Vertical Pipe: Influence of Pressure Drop on the Measurement of Fluid Flow Rate. Energies 2018, 11, 2937. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112937

AMA Style

Ganat TA, Hrairi M. Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Upward Flow through a Vertical Pipe: Influence of Pressure Drop on the Measurement of Fluid Flow Rate. Energies. 2018; 11(11):2937. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112937

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ganat, Tarek A., and Meftah Hrairi. 2018. "Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Upward Flow through a Vertical Pipe: Influence of Pressure Drop on the Measurement of Fluid Flow Rate" Energies 11, no. 11: 2937. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11112937

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