Next Article in Journal
Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Drag Reduction by Laminar Flow Control
Previous Article in Journal
An Optimal and Distributed Demand Response Strategy for Energy Internet Management
Previous Article in Special Issue
Simulation-Based Analysis of the Potential of Alternative Fuels towards Reducing CO2 Emissions from Aviation
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(1), 217;

Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

Institute of Electric Power Systems, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 9a, 30167 Hanover, Germany
Aeronautics Research Centre Niedersachsen (NFL), Technische Universität Braunschweig, Hermann-Blenk-Straße 42, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany
Institute of Aircraft Design and Lightweight Structures, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Hermann-Blenk-Straße 35, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany
Institute of Jet Propulsion and Turbomachinery, TU Braunschweig, Hermann-Blenk-Straße 37, 38108 Brunswick, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards a Transformation to Sustainable Aviation Systems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4874 KB, uploaded 18 January 2018]   |  


Ambitious targets to reduce emissions caused by aviation in the light of an expected ongoing rise of the air transport demand in the future drive the research of propulsion systems with lower CO2 emissions. Regional hybrid electric aircraft (HEA) powered by conventional gas turbines and battery powered electric motors are investigated to test hybrid propulsion operation strategies. Especially the role of the battery within environmentally friendly concepts with significantly reduced carbon footprint is analyzed. Thus, a new simulation approach for HEA is introduced. The main findings underline the importance of choosing the right power-to-energy-ratio of a battery according to the flight mission. The gravimetric energy and power density of the electric storages determine the technologically feasibility of hybrid concepts. Cost competitive HEA configurations are found, but do not promise the targeted CO2 emission savings, when the well-to-wheel system is regarded with its actual costs. Sensitivity studies are used to determine external levers that favor the profitability of HEA. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid electric aircraft; overall aircraft design; propulsion design; battery strategy; regional aircraft; wingtip propellers hybrid electric aircraft; overall aircraft design; propulsion design; battery strategy; regional aircraft; wingtip propellers

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hoelzen, J.; Liu, Y.; Bensmann, B.; Winnefeld, C.; Elham, A.; Friedrichs, J.; Hanke-Rauschenbach, R. Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft. Energies 2018, 11, 217.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top