Next Article in Journal
Effect of Gas Recycling on the Performance of a Moving Bed Temperature-Swing (MBTSA) Process for CO2 Capture in a Coal Fired Power Plant Context
Previous Article in Journal
The Effect of Embodied Impact on the Cost-Optimal Levels of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings: A Case Study of a Residential Building in Thessaloniki, Greece
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Impact of Vibration on the Surface Film of Lithium-Ion Cells

Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG), University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Jaguar Land Rover, Banbury Road, Warwick CV35 0XJ, UK
Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: K.T. Chau
Energies 2017, 10(6), 741;
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
PDF [2081 KB, uploaded 25 May 2017]


Cylindrical 18650-type lithium-ion cells are being utilized more often for automotive applications. This introduces error in calculating expected lifetime due to varied usage conditions accelerating or reducing material damage. One such usage condition is vibration, which has been shown to impact the electrical performance over extended periods. Within this study X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been performed on nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) cells subjected to vibration. This study found that vibration causes the removal of the selectively-formed surface film created during a cell’s first cycles and replaces it with the surface film from electrolyte decomposition. The surface films formed by vibration are composed of much higher concentrations of organic electrolyte decomposition products than the film from the control cell. The impact of this chemical mechanism is an increased level of cell degradation. This is exhibited in increased capacity fade and cell impedance. This is the first study presented within the academic literature which has identified an electro-mechanical mechanism responsible for the performance degradation in lithium-ion cells from vibration. View Full-Text
Keywords: XPS; vibration; ageing; lifetime; cylindrical cells; vehicle use XPS; vibration; ageing; lifetime; cylindrical cells; vehicle use

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Somerville, L.; Hooper, J.M.; Marco, J.; McGordon, A.; Lyness, C.; Walker, M.; Jennings, P. Impact of Vibration on the Surface Film of Lithium-Ion Cells. Energies 2017, 10, 741.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top