Next Article in Journal
Control Strategy of Single-Phase Three Level Neutral Point Clamped Cascaded Rectifier
Next Article in Special Issue
A Data-Driven Method for Energy Consumption Prediction and Energy-Efficient Routing of Electric Vehicles in Real-World Conditions
Previous Article in Journal
Probabilistic Power Flow Method Considering Continuous and Discrete Variables
Previous Article in Special Issue
Optimal Charging Schedule Planning and Economic Analysis for Electric Bus Charging Stations
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

In Situ Stress Measurement Techniques on Li-ion Battery Electrodes: A Review

Collaborative Innovation Center for Electric Vehicles in Beijing, National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joeri Van Mierlo
Energies 2017, 10(5), 591;
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles 2017)
PDF [2447 KB, uploaded 27 April 2017]


Li-ion batteries experience mechanical stress evolution due in part to Li intercalation into and de-intercalation out of the electrodes, ultimately resulting in performance degradation. In situ measurements of electrode stress can be used to analyze stress generation factors, verify mechanical deformation models, and validate degradation mechanisms. They can also be embedded in Li-ion battery management systems when stress sensors are either implanted in electrodes or attached on battery surfaces. This paper reviews in situ measurement methods of electrode stress based on optical principles, including digital image correlation, curvature measurement, and fiber optical sensors. Their experimental setups, principles, and applications are described and contrasted. This literature review summarizes the current status of these stress measurement methods for battery electrodes and discusses recent developments and trends. View Full-Text
Keywords: Li-ion batteries; electrodes; mechanical stress; in situ measurements; review Li-ion batteries; electrodes; mechanical stress; in situ measurements; review

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, X.; Pecht, M. In Situ Stress Measurement Techniques on Li-ion Battery Electrodes: A Review. Energies 2017, 10, 591.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top