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Energies 2017, 10(2), 179;

Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1, Canada
Environment & Life Sciences Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat 13109, Kuwait
The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Tsatsaronis
Received: 14 November 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 1 February 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Production Systems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [212 KB, uploaded 4 February 2017]


This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: start-up; shut-down; emissions; dynamic; non-steady state start-up; shut-down; emissions; dynamic; non-steady state
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Obaid, J.; Ramadan, A.; Elkamel, A.; Anderson, W. Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review. Energies 2017, 10, 179.

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