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Open AccessArticle

On Hybrid Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Networks

by Mohammad Tala’t 1,†, Chih-Min Yu 2,†, Meng-Lin Ku 3,*,† and Kai-Ten Feng 1,‡
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30012, Taiwan
Department of Electronics Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu 30012, Taiwan
Department of Communication Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors are the members of IEEE.
This author is the senior member of IEEE.
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1940;
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Energy Efficiency 2018)
In a wireless sensor network (WSN), many applications have limited energy resources for data transmission. In order to accomplish a better green communication for WSN, a hybrid energy scheme can supply a more reliable energy source. In this article, hybrid energy utilization—which consists of constant energy source and solar harvested energy—is considered for WSN. To minimize constant energy usage from the hybrid source, a Markov decision process (MDP) is designed to find the optimal transmission policy. With a finite packet buffer and a finite battery size, an MDP model is presented to define the states, actions, state transition probabilities, and the cost function including the cost values for all actions. A weighted sum of constant energy source consumption and a packet dropping probability (PDP) are adopted as the cost value, enabling us to find the optimal solution for balancing the minimization of the constant energy source utilization and the PDP using a value iteration algorithm. As shown in the simulation results, the performance of optimal solution using MDP achieves a significant improvement compared to solution without its use. View Full-Text
Keywords: Markov decision process; wireless sensor network; hybrid energy source Markov decision process; wireless sensor network; hybrid energy source
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Tala’t, M.; Yu, C.-M.; Ku, M.-L.; Feng, K.-T. On Hybrid Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Networks. Energies 2017, 10, 1940.

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