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Energies 2017, 10(11), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10111778

Energy and Reserve under Distributed Energy Resources Management—Day-Ahead, Hour-Ahead and Real-Time

1
INESC Technology and Science (INESC TEC), 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Research Group on Intelligent Engineering and Computing for Advanced Innovation and Development (GECAD), Institute of Engineering-Polytechnic of Porto (ISEP/IPP), 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Holderbaum
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2843 KB, uploaded 4 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources based on renewable energy sources in distribution systems leads to a more complex management of power systems. Consequently, ancillary services become even more important to maintain the system security and reliability. This paper proposes and evaluates a generic model for day-ahead, intraday (hour-ahead) and real-time scheduling, considering the joint optimization of energy and reserve in the scope of the virtual power player concept. The model aims to minimize the operation costs in the point of view of one aggregator agent taking into account the balance of the distribution system. For each scheduling stage, previous scheduling results and updated forecasts are considered. An illustrative test case of a distribution network with 33 buses, considering a large penetration of distribution energy resources allows demonstrating the benefits of the proposed model. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed energy resources; energy and reserve joint operation; real-time operation; reserve procurement; virtual power player distributed energy resources; energy and reserve joint operation; real-time operation; reserve procurement; virtual power player
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Soares, T.; Silva, M.; Sousa, T.; Morais, H.; Vale, Z. Energy and Reserve under Distributed Energy Resources Management—Day-Ahead, Hour-Ahead and Real-Time. Energies 2017, 10, 1778.

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