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Energies 2017, 10(10), 1582;

Self-Powered Electrochemical Lactate Biosensing

Bioelectronics Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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This work presents the development and characterization of a self-powered electrochemical lactate biosensor for real-time monitoring of lactic acid. The bioanode and biocathode were modified with D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD), respectively, to facilitate the oxidation and reduction of lactic acid and molecular oxygen. The bioelectrodes were arranged in a parallel configuration to construct the biofuel cell. This biofuel cell’s current–voltage characteristic was analyzed in the presence of various lactic acid concentrations over a range of 1–25 mM. An open circuit voltage of 395.3 mV and a short circuit current density of 418.8 µA/cm² were obtained when operating in 25 mM lactic acid. Additionally, a 10 pF capacitor was integrated via a charge pump circuit to the biofuel cell to realize the self-powered lactate biosensor with a footprint of 1.4 cm × 2 cm. The charge pump enabled the boosting of the biofuel cell voltage in bursts of 1.2–1.8 V via the capacitor. By observing the burst frequency of a 10 pF capacitor, the exact concentration of lactic acid was deduced. As a self-powered lactate sensor, a linear dynamic range of 1–100 mM lactic acid was observed under physiologic conditions (37 °C, pH 7.4) and the sensor exhibited an excellent sensitivity of 125.88 Hz/mM-cm2. This electrochemical lactate biosensor has the potential to be used for the real-time monitoring of lactic acid level in biological fluids. View Full-Text
Keywords: lactate; enzymatic biofuel cell; voltage boosting; biosensing lactate; enzymatic biofuel cell; voltage boosting; biosensing

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Baingane, A.; Slaughter, G. Self-Powered Electrochemical Lactate Biosensing. Energies 2017, 10, 1582.

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