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Immune Biomarkers in Blood from Sarcoma Patients: A Pilot Study

National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence in Research and Learning (NOCERAL), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway 47500, Malaysia
Division of Applied Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5585-5603;
Received: 24 June 2022 / Revised: 27 July 2022 / Accepted: 28 July 2022 / Published: 5 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Bone and Soft Tissue Oncology)
The main role of the host immune system is to identify and eliminate cancer cells, which is a complex process, but it is not a fail-safe mechanism. Many sarcoma patients succumb to this disease despite treatments rendered. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the levels of CD4+ T-cells, T-regulatory (Treg) cells, and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) in peripheral blood leukocytes of sarcoma patients and healthy controls. For gene expression studies, total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and genes that were differentially regulated in peripheral blood leukocytes of sarcoma patients compared with healthy controls were determined using a commercial T-helper cell differentiation quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array. Flow cytometer analysis was performed on blood samples from 26 sarcoma patients and 10 healthy controls to identify the levels of CD4+ T-cells and T-reg cells. The level of cytokines in plasma and culture supernatant were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. A marked reduction in the percentage of CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.037) and levels of TNF-α (p = 0.004) and IFN-γ (0.010) was observed in sarcoma patients. Gene expression analysis showed five genes (homeobox A10 (HOXA10), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (PTGDR2), thymocyte selection associated high mobility group box (TOX), and C-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3)) were dysregulated (p < 0.05) in sarcoma patients. This study suggests that T-helper-1 immune responses are reduced in sarcoma patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: CD4+ T-cells; TNF-α; IFN-γ; biomarkers CD4+ T-cells; TNF-α; IFN-γ; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Munisamy, S.; Radhakrishnan, A.K.; Ramdas, P.; Samuel, P.J.; Singh, V.A. Immune Biomarkers in Blood from Sarcoma Patients: A Pilot Study. Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29, 5585-5603.

AMA Style

Munisamy S, Radhakrishnan AK, Ramdas P, Samuel PJ, Singh VA. Immune Biomarkers in Blood from Sarcoma Patients: A Pilot Study. Current Oncology. 2022; 29(8):5585-5603.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Munisamy, Sarmini, Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan, Premdass Ramdas, Priscilla Josephine Samuel, and Vivek Ajit Singh. 2022. "Immune Biomarkers in Blood from Sarcoma Patients: A Pilot Study" Current Oncology 29, no. 8: 5585-5603.

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