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The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health
Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2010; in revised form: 8 March 2010 / Accepted: 10 March 2010 / Published: 26 March 2010
Abstract: Compared to several other metal ions with similar chemical properties, zinc is relatively harmless. Only exposure to high doses has toxic effects, making acute zinc intoxication a rare event. In addition to acute intoxication, long-term, high-dose zinc supplementation interferes with the uptake of copper. Hence, many of its toxic effects are in fact due to copper deficiency. While systemic homeostasis and efficient regulatory mechanisms on the cellular level generally prevent the uptake of cytotoxic doses of exogenous zinc, endogenous zinc plays a significant role in cytotoxic events in single cells. Here, zinc influences apoptosis by acting on several molecular regulators of programmed cell death, including caspases and proteins from the Bcl and Bax families. One organ where zinc is prominently involved in cell death is the brain, and cytotoxicity in consequence of ischemia or trauma involves the accumulation of free zinc. Rather than being a toxic metal ion, zinc is an essential trace element. Whereas intoxication by excessive exposure is rare, zinc deficiency is widespread and has a detrimental impact on growth, neuronal development, and immunity, and in severe cases its consequences are lethal. Zinc deficiency caused by malnutrition and foods with low bioavailability, aging, certain diseases, or deregulated homeostasis is a far more common risk to human health than intoxication.
Keywords: toxicity; zinc; essential trace element
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Plum, L.M.; Rink, L.; Haase, H. The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1342-1365.
Plum LM, Rink L, Haase H. The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(4):1342-1365.
Plum, Laura M.; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo. 2010. "The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 4: 1342-1365.