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Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women: Historical Versus Contemporaneous Exposures
Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, 2608 Erwin Rd, Suite 200 Durham, NC 27705, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2010; in revised form: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 29 March 2010 / Published: 1 April 2010
Abstract: Blood lead among pregnant women, even at modest levels, may impair offspring cognitive development. We examine whether blood lead levels (BLLs) result from current versus historic exposures, among a cohort of pregnant women. Cumulative logit models were used to characterize the relationship between maternal risk factors and higher BLLs. Maternal blood lead levels more likely result from lead remobilization from historic versus contemporaneous exposures. Even if all lead sources were abated immediately, women and their fetuses would experience lead exposure for decades. This work emphasizes the importance of addressing sources of environmental lead exposure in the United States and internationally.
Keywords: blood lead; pregnancy; birth outcomes; lead exposure
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Miranda, M.L.; Edwards, S.E.; Swamy, G.K.; Paul, C.J.; Neelon, B. Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women: Historical Versus Contemporaneous Exposures. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 1508-1519.
Miranda ML, Edwards SE, Swamy GK, Paul CJ, Neelon B. Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women: Historical Versus Contemporaneous Exposures. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(4):1508-1519.
Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon E.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Paul, Christopher J.; Neelon, Brian. 2010. "Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women: Historical Versus Contemporaneous Exposures." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 4: 1508-1519.