Next Article in Journal
Siblings and Early Childhood Development: Evidence from a Population-Based Cohort in Preschoolers from Shanghai
Previous Article in Journal
COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among Social Media Users: A Content Analysis, Multi-Continent Study
 
 
Review

Cholera Outbreaks in India, 2011–2020: A Systematic Review

1
Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
2
Collaborative Research Center of Okayama University for Infectious Diseases in India, Kolkata 700010, India
3
Department of Biotechnology, Brainware University, Kolkata 700125, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095738
Received: 1 April 2022 / Revised: 5 May 2022 / Accepted: 6 May 2022 / Published: 8 May 2022
Fecal contamination of water sources and open defecation have been linked to cholera outbreaks in India. However, a systematic review on the drivers responsible for these outbreaks has yet to be published. Here, we systematically review the published literature on cholera outbreaks in India between 2011 and 2020. We searched studies in English in three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science) and the Integrated Disease Surveillance Program that tracks cholera outbreaks throughout India. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Quantitative data on the modes of transmission reviewed in this study were assessed for any change over time between 2011–2015 and 2016–2020. Our search retrieved 10823 records initially, out of which 81 full-text studies were assessed for eligibility. Among these 81 studies, 20 were eligible for inclusion in this review. There were 565 reported outbreaks between 2011 and 2020 that led to 45,759 cases and 263 deaths. Outbreaks occurred throughout the year; however, they exploded with monsoons (June through September). In Tamil Nadu, a typical peak of cholera outbreaks was observed from December to January. Seventy-two percent (33,089/45,759) of outbreak-related cases were reported in five states, namely Maharashtra, West Bengal, Punjab, Karnataka, and Madhya Pradesh. Analysis of these outbreaks highlighted the main drivers of cholera including contaminated drinking water and food, inadequate sanitation and hygiene (including open defecation), and direct contact between households. The comparison between 2011–2015 and 2016–2020 showed a decreasing trend in the outbreaks that arose due to damaged water pipelines. Many Indians still struggle with open defecation, sanitation, and clean water access. These issues should be addressed critically. In addition, it is essential to interrupt cholera short-cycle transmission (mediated by households, stored drinking water and foodstuffs) during an outbreak. As cholera is associated with deprivation, socio-economic development is the only long-term solution. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholera; outbreak; water supply; open defecation; sewage; household; food; close contact; behavioral changes; India cholera; outbreak; water supply; open defecation; sewage; household; food; close contact; behavioral changes; India
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Muzembo, B.A.; Kitahara, K.; Debnath, A.; Ohno, A.; Okamoto, K.; Miyoshi, S.-I. Cholera Outbreaks in India, 2011–2020: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 5738. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095738

AMA Style

Muzembo BA, Kitahara K, Debnath A, Ohno A, Okamoto K, Miyoshi S-I. Cholera Outbreaks in India, 2011–2020: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(9):5738. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095738

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muzembo, Basilua Andre, Kei Kitahara, Anusuya Debnath, Ayumu Ohno, Keinosuke Okamoto, and Shin-Ichi Miyoshi. 2022. "Cholera Outbreaks in India, 2011–2020: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 9: 5738. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095738

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop