Next Article in Journal
Spatial Differences in the Effect of Communities’ Built Environment on Residents’ Health: A Case Study in Wuhan, China
Next Article in Special Issue
The Influence of Environmental Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Exposure on DNA Damage among School Children in Urban Traffic Area, Malaysia
Previous Article in Journal
A Global Perspective of Racial–Ethnic Inequities in Dental Caries: Protocol of Systematic Review
Article

Spatial Distribution of Air Pollution, Hotspots and Sources in an Urban-Industrial Area in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal—A Biomonitoring Approach

1
Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-066 Bobadela, Portugal
2
ESTSetúbal/IPS and CINEA, IPS Campus, Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, 2914-508 Setúbal, Portugal
3
CESAM—Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
4
Laboratory for Heritage Science, Institute for Nuclear Research, H-4026 Debrecen, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tareq Hussein
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031364
Received: 23 November 2021 / Revised: 19 January 2022 / Accepted: 21 January 2022 / Published: 26 January 2022
This study aimed to understand the influence of industries (including steelworks, lime factories, and industry of metal waste management and treatment) on the air quality of the urban-industrial area of Seixal (Portugal), where the local population has often expressed concerns regarding the air quality. The adopted strategy was based on biomonitoring of air pollution using transplanted lichens distributed over a grid to cover the study area. Moreover, the study was conducted during the first period of national lockdown due to COVID-19, whereas local industries kept their normal working schedule. Using a set of different statistical analysis approaches (such as enrichment and contamination factors, Spearman correlations, and evaluation of spatial patterns) to the chemical content of the exposed transplanted lichens, it was possible to assess hotspots of air pollution and to identify five sources affecting the local air quality: (i) a soil source of natural origin (based on Al, Si, and Ti), (ii) a soil source of natural and anthropogenic origins (based on Fe and Mg), (iii) a source from the local industrial activity, namely steelworks (based on Co, Cr, Mn, Pb, and Zn); (iv) a source from the road traffic (based on Cr, Cu, and Zn), and (v) a source of biomass burning (based on Br and K). The impact of the industries located in the study area on the local air quality was identified (namely, the steelworks), confirming the concerns of the local population. This valuable information is essential to improve future planning and optimize the assessment of particulate matter levels by reference methods, which will allow a quantitative analysis of the issue, based on national and European legislation, and to define the quantitative contribution of pollution sources and to design target mitigation measures to improve local air quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; biomonitoring; transplanted lichens; spatial analysis; urban-industrial area; steelworks; source apportionment air pollution; biomonitoring; transplanted lichens; spatial analysis; urban-industrial area; steelworks; source apportionment
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Abecasis, L.; Gamelas, C.A.; Justino, A.R.; Dionísio, I.; Canha, N.; Kertesz, Z.; Almeida, S.M. Spatial Distribution of Air Pollution, Hotspots and Sources in an Urban-Industrial Area in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal—A Biomonitoring Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1364. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031364

AMA Style

Abecasis L, Gamelas CA, Justino AR, Dionísio I, Canha N, Kertesz Z, Almeida SM. Spatial Distribution of Air Pollution, Hotspots and Sources in an Urban-Industrial Area in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal—A Biomonitoring Approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1364. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031364

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abecasis, Leonor, Carla A. Gamelas, Ana R. Justino, Isabel Dionísio, Nuno Canha, Zsofia Kertesz, and Susana M. Almeida. 2022. "Spatial Distribution of Air Pollution, Hotspots and Sources in an Urban-Industrial Area in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal—A Biomonitoring Approach" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1364. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031364

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop