“At the Root of COVID Grew a More Complicated Situation”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Guatemalan Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response System during the COVID-19 Pandemic
2.1. Data Collection
3.1. Sample Description
3.3. Addressing Immanent SDH
“The large inequalities that exist are also related to discrimination and the lack of access [to resources]. If we’re talking about rural areas and urban areas, this is also something that has a lot to do with discrimination relating to ethnic groups, our Indigenous population” (KII_18).
Severe child malnutrition increased because … many people and families lost their jobs, they were fired, and this obliged us, as an institution, to coordinate some humanitarian aid, the inclusion of some social programs, but these were very limited, very limited considering the enormous need that was just identified and which was getting worse, it was insufficient, any aid sent was insufficient against the needs, and we don’t have a welfare approach, we are rather focused on providing special care, on being able to provide psychosocial, pedagogical, legal care to restitute the rights of children. (KII_5)
During the pandemic we had a lot of complaints about access to drinking water. There was a lot of emphasis about handwashing, but many sectors lack access to drinking water, so the number of complaints about this skyrocketed. In the case of water-related interventions, we labeled them as emergencies, as health-related. The idea is to approach the responsible institution and get a timely response in order to reestablish the people’s human rights. (KII_4)
The economic dependence of women also forces them to endure violent situations. It is frequent, for example, to hear, ‘Look, the thing is, if I leave my husband, who’s going to support my children?’ At the root of COVID-19 grew a more complicated situation. (KII_6)
“Physical abuse increased because of confinement and the economic crisis. Economic challenges always tend to create tensions, and now that everyone was forced to stay in the house for a long time, these tensions grew even further. In many cases, we saw that the husband would abuse his wife, and then she would abuse her children. Violence became commonplace, a daily event even.” (KII_2)
Teams still can’t access all [regions] … Many of them have mobilized themselves by bus, public transportation, and some even have their own vehicles, or are paid an allowance through transportation lists. However, right now, under the pandemic, there is no access to regular transportation, and when transportation started to reactivate, the cost was double and even triple, which meant that budgets were affected. In the end, if there is no tool to bring the services close to communities, it is a challenge for us to be able to solve it. These are the most significant challenges we face (KII_5).
3.4. Perceived Patterns of GBV Reporting and Processing
“Yes, [most cases] were more severe compared to before the pandemic. Women disappeared before the curfew began. Since their family couldn’t get out to activate the alert, these alerts would be sent until later. There was a case in which the neighbors of a missing woman heard her little girl crying. The woman was found dead two days later… [The perpetrators] took advantage of the curfews to get rid of the bodies.” (KII_2)
The problem was that lockdown didn’t allow us to deploy people or to organize any mass activities, we couldn’t organize meetings with parents, children or institutions. We had to change the strategies and find ways for the people to stay informed and specially to be made aware because sexual violence, exploitation and people trafficking are crimes that most people have normalized, so there isn’t much of a culture of reporting these crimes, sometimes this happens due to a lack of credibility and of course this creates impunity (KII_14).
Full lockdown caused an increase of human rights violations and a lack of response from the system. There was an increase of missing girls but a reduction of reports in the system. When we started looking into what was happening, we realized that the police were no longer accepting any reports during lockdown so if people went to a police station to report a missing girl or woman, they said that they were asked to focus on the pandemic and that they couldn’t deal with other types of reports (KII_3).
“Because there are lockdowns and there’s a need to verify that people are staying home during lockdowns, the police became present throughout the whole country, that is, they monitored the streets. Therefore, when there was a violent act, the police were nearby and could aid the victims. So, we do believe that the Public Ministry and the National Civilian Police have helped” (KII_16).
I think the increase in complaints is a positive thing. It means women feel more empowered to report and they have more trust in the system protecting their rights … In terms of technology, I think that was great progress too. We were able to get a lot of complaints that way. People just have to tag the Procuraduría de los Derechos Humanos [Attorney General’s Office for Human Rights: the governmental body seeking to secure constitutional human rights], and the consultant is monitoring that. They get their information, like a phone number, and they give that to us. And then the officers here can follow up (KII_4).
The pandemic has been a challenge for us and for 1555 [the number for a national hotline that receives complaints, including GBV], because initially we received an overflow of requests. Not all were necessarily related to human rights violations, but there was a lot of uncertainty about the disease, healthcare services, and a large number of cases. People, because they trust us, came to us (KII_4).
3.5. Providers’ Research Challenges
“The pandemic struck the world in March 2020, when there was already an annual operating plan created based on another plan conceived for normal times. Some of the resources had to be used for health security equipment to prevent the institution’s staff from getting infected. Therefore, there was a shortage of other things needed, for example—and this is essential—gasoline for vehicles. By using part of the budget for health security measures, other services lose resources. And one of the resources that has been severely affected was gasoline for transporting prosecutors, victims, in the institution’s vehicles” (KII_16).
“We don’t have ideal resources. With the few investigators, the vehicles that we have, sometimes we are not able to investigate all the cases at once, and the cases start accumulating. And this harms children because if there is a case of maltreatment right now and I don’t have resources, I don’t go now. I go next week. So that puts children’s lives at greater risk. Yes, it has had an impact on us because, as there have been many complaints, our work, I would say, was not carried out immediately” (KII_11).
“We had to use [PPE], which wasn’t always available for the interventions… Access to victims was also limited for the same reasons. Like, ‘look, this might be a victim, but they’re in a restricted area of the hospital, so you can’t access to interview them.’ This also led us to reinvent ourselves. We said, ‘we’ll make a phone call; if you won’t let me in, take this phone to the person so I can talk to them.’ And this deals with access to technology, which institutionally is limited. So, the investigators had to use their own means and resources to investigate” (KII_4).
“It has been stressful, very stressful to know that the fact that we also have to expose ourselves to work, to go out, to presential meetings, have us in a greater level of exposure, and that as a country we still do not have enough vaccines to ensure that we, from the justice system, have access to this option. But we have had enough colleagues who have died or who have fallen seriously ill” (KII_9).
“Another thing I think of is that the whole issue of corruption in the country … The health system is completely collapsed, but it’s collapsed because the money has been stolen! I mean, what do you do when there are no supplies? I mean, right now they [the government] … bought a lot of vaccines but it is uncertain when they will arrive, and the State is questioned and the State doesn’t know when the vaccines will be sent” (KII_12).
3.6. Digitizing Service Provision
There’s a lack of culture of accessing public information. Women lack access to mass media. And this is on top of the victims’ lack of knowledge about services provided through platforms and phone calls. So, all these situations add up (KII_16).
“When there are very high poverty levels, what humans do is try to find survival mechanisms, and what are our basic needs? Food and shelter. These are our main concerns because they allow us to survive. I can live without Internet reception or without a phone, but I cannot survive without any food or without a place to live” (KII_1).
“Victims in rural areas lack access to electricity, and obviously to the internet or a phone line... Even in super urban areas, there is an Internet problem. Even more so in rural communities. And that should not be forgotten in the case of Guatemala... So then what’s proposed to be done in virtually in some cases isn’t possible everywhere” (KII_16).
“Even if there is the possibility to file reports and submit your documents online, most people still go to the bricks-and-mortar offices because they have no internet access. Sometimes, they own a smartphone but have no credit or anything. They sometimes only top up their phones with 5 quetzales that day to be able to send an email, but they can’t afford to spend more than that to take their classes or receive therapy. They were forced to prioritize their resources” (KII_2).
3.7. Navigating Health–Legal–Social Services
“We were not ready for such a crisis, no one was, so we didn’t know how we could coordinate rescue efforts with the government. We had to learn this on the go. We would call the Prosecutor’s Office and the user from our home. It was very complicated, and on some occasions, we could have handled things better, but even the government didn’t know what to do” (KII_2).
When we were finally able to provide our services on a normal basis, we had to focus on guaranteeing the safety of everyone, both our staff and the people we serve…The projects we were involved in the past were mostly field projects, and they had to stop, so later we had to see how we could resume them while performing other tasks at the same time. This has been an exhausting year for sure (KII_2).
Most of the shelters were closed, so women had nowhere to go, so that meant they had to stay at home. In those cases, our suggestion was to get the perpetrator out of the house. Authorities started doing this because there were shelters that weren’t able to relocate the people they had taken in. Shelters had to figure out a way to provide food for all of them … These shelters are closed spaces, so you need to guarantee people’s safety (KII_2).
We didn’t have permission to go out after the curfew. Only doctors, prosecutors, and the police could. Also, most of the admissions needed to happen after the curfew, at 5:00 PM or 8:00 PM, so even if we had everything ready, if the person couldn’t get to the shelter before the curfew, then she wouldn’t be admitted (KII_2).
We noticed that the police cars of the [Civil National Police] had loudspeakers and so we realized that our consultants who had been deployed to the departments could coordinate and move around the areas even during non-working hours, after the curfew, and deliver our messages. That was one of our strategies. The campaign we spread through social media and the radio... We implemented a strategy so that our team could approach the authorities, and we implemented ways of delivering information virtually (KII_14).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- UN Women. Violence against Women and Girls: The Shadow Pandemic. UN Women—Headquarters. 2020. Available online: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2020/4/statement-ed-phumzile-violence-against-women-during-pandemic (accessed on 3 March 2022).
- Viero, A.; Barbara, G.; Montisci, M.; Kustermann, K.; Cattaneo, C. Violence against women in the Covid-19 pandemic: A review of the literature and a call for shared strategies to tackle health and social emergencies. Forensic Sci. Int. 2021, 319, 110650. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Emezue, C. Digital or Digitally Delivered Responses to Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence during COVID-19. JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020, 6, e19831. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Gosangi, B.; Park, H.; Thomas, R.; Gujrathi, R.; Bay, C.P.; Raja, A.S.; Seltzer, S.E.; Balcom, M.C.; McDonald, M.L.; Orgill, D.P.; et al. Exacerbation of Physical Intimate Partner Violence during COVID-19 Pandemic. Radiology 2021, 298, E38–E45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Haag, H.L.; Toccalino, D.; Estrella, M.J.; Moore, A.; Colantonio, A. The Shadow Pandemic: A Qualitative Exploration of the Impacts of COVID-19 on Service Providers and Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence and Brain Injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 2022, 37, 43–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- UN Women. COVID-19 and Violence against Women: What The Data Tells Us. UN Women. 2021. Available online: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news-stories/feature-story/2021/11/covid-19-and-violence-against-women-what-the-data-tells-us (accessed on 29 January 2022).
- Johnson, K.; Green, L.; Volpellier, M.; Kidenda, S.; McHale, T.; Naimer, K.; Mishori, R. The impact of COVID-19 on services for people affected by sexual and gender-based violence. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 2020, 150, 285–287. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Themis, N. Gender Justice during and beyond the COVID-19 Crisis: Institutional Responses to Gender-Based Violence and the Role of Legal Empowerment Groups. 2021. Available online: https://namati.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Gender-Justice-COVID19-EN.pdf (accessed on 20 July 2022).
- Meinhart, M.; Vahedi, L.; Carter, S.E.; Poulton, C.; Mwanze Palaku, P.; Stark, L. Gender-based violence and infectious disease in humanitarian settings: Lessons learned from Ebola, Zika, and COVID-19 to inform syndemic policy making. Confl. Health 2021, 15, 84. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Roesch, E.; Amin, A.; Gupta, J.; García-Moreno, C. Violence against women during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. BMJ 2020, 369, m1712. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stark, L.; Meinhart, M.; Vahedi, L.; Carter, S.E.; Roesch, E.; Scott Moncrieff, I.; Mwanze Palaku, P.; Rossi, F.; Poulton, C. The syndemic of COVID-19 and gender-based violence in humanitarian settings: Leveraging lessons from Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo. BMJ Glob. Health 2020, 5, e004194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Asi, Y.M.; Bebasari, P.; Hardy, E.; Lokot, M.; Meagher, K.; Ogbe, E.; Parray, A.A.; Sharma, V.; Standley, C.J.; Vahedi, L. Assessing gender responsiveness of COVID-19 response plans for populations in conflict-affected humanitarian emergencies. Confl. Health 2022, 16, 4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vahedi, L.; Anania, J.; Kelly, J. Gender-Based Violence and COVID-19 in Fragile Settings: A Syndemic Model; United States Institute of Peace: Washington, DC, USA, 2021; p. 20, Report No. 501. [Google Scholar]
- Mittal, S.; Singh, T. Gender-Based Violence during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mini-Review. Front. Glob. Women’s Health 2020, 1, 4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mojahed, A.; Brym, S.; Hense, H.; Grafe, B.; Helfferich, C.; Lindert, J.; Garthus-Niegel, S. Rapid Review on the Associations of Social and Geographical Isolation and Intimate Partner Violence: Implications for the Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic. Front. Psychiatry 2021, 12, 578150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Piquero, A.R.; Jennings, W.G.; Jemison, E.; Kaukinen, C.; Knaul, F.M. Domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic—Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Crim. Justice 2021, 74, 101806. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Garcia, R.; Henderson, C.; Randell, K.; Villaveces, A.; Katz, A.; Abioye, F.; DeGue, S.; Premo, K.; Miller-Wallfish, S.; Chang, J.C.; et al. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Intimate Partner Violence Advocates and Agencies. J. Fam. Violence 2022, 37, 893–906. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sapire, R.; Ostrowski, J.; Maier, M.; Samari, G.; Bencomo, C.; McGovern, T. COVID-19 and gender-based violence service provision in the United States. PLoS ONE 2022, 17, e0263970. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kasman, M.; Breen, N.; Hammond, R. Complex Systems Science. In The Science of Health Disparities Research and Applications; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2020; p. 528. [Google Scholar]
- Luke, D.A.; Stamatakis, K.A. Systems science methods in public health: Dynamics, networks, and agents. Annu. Rev. Public Health 2012, 33, 357–376. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Makleff, S.; Billowitz, M.; Garduño, J.; Cruz, M.; Silva Márquez, V.I.; Marston, C. Applying a complex adaptive systems approach to the evaluation of a school-based intervention for intimate partner violence prevention in Mexico. Health Policy Plan 2020, 35, 993–1002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kourti, A.; Stavridou, A.; Panagouli, E.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Spiliopoulou, C.; Tsolia, M.; Sergentanis, T.N.; Tsitsika, A. Domestic Violence during the COVID-10 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. Trauma Violence Abus. 2021, 1–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cortis, N.; Smyth, C.; Valentine, K.; Breckenridge, J.; Cullen, P. Adapting Service Delivery during COVID-19: Experiences of Domestic Violence Practitioners. Br. J. Soc. Work 2021, 51, 1779–1798. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pearson, I.; Butler, N.; Yelgezekova, Z.; Nihlén, Å.; Yordi Aguirre, I.; Quigg, Z.; Stöckl, H. Emerging responses implemented to prevent and respond to violence against women and children in WHO European member states during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review of online media reports. BMJ Open 2021, 11, e045872. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Omukuti, J.; Barlow, M.; Giraudo, M.E.; Lines, T.; Grugel, J. Systems thinking in COVID-19 recovery is urgently needed to deliver sustainable development for women and girls. Lancet Planet. Health 2021, 5, e921–e928. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The World Bank. The World Bank in Guatemala: Overview. 2021. Available online: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/guatemala/overview (accessed on 31 January 2022).
- ReliefWeb. Central America: Meet People’s Needs and Tackle Root Causes of Migration, Says Report—Guatemala. 2021. Available online: https://reliefweb.int/report/guatemala/central-america-meet-people-s-needs-and-tackle-root-causes-migration-says-report (accessed on 31 January 2022).
- UNHCR. Guatemala. 2022. Available online: https://reporting.unhcr.org/guatemala#toc-narratives (accessed on 31 January 2022).
- Angelo, P.J. Why Central American Migrants Are Arriving at the U.S. Border [Internet]. Council on Foreign Relations. 2021. Available online: https://www.cfr.org/in-brief/why-central-american-migrants-are-arriving-us-border (accessed on 3 March 2022).
- Beck, E.; Mohamed, A. A Body Speaks: State, Media, and Public Responses to Femicide in Guatemala. Laws 2021, 10, 73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WHO. WHO Region of the Americas Fact Sheet: Violence against Women Prevalence Estimates; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2018; p. 2. Available online: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-SRH-21.11 (accessed on 20 July 2022).
- Musalo, K.; Bookey, B. Crimes without Punishment: An Update on Violence against Women and Impunity in Guatemala. Soc. Justice 2014, 40, 106–117. [Google Scholar]
- Iesue, L. COVID-19 Lockdowns and Gender-Based Violence across Ethnic Groups in Guatemala; Gender Based Violence Dispatch; Wilson International Center: Washington, DC, USA, 2021; 15p. [Google Scholar]
- Iesue, L.; Casanova, F.O.; Piquero, A.R. Domestic Violence During a Global Pandemic: Lockdown Policies and Their Impacts Across Guatemala. J. Contemp. Crim. Justice 2021, 37, 589–614. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNICEF, Washington University in St. Louis. I Was not Safe in His House: The COVID-19 Pandemic and Violence against Refugee and Migrant Girls and Women in Italy; UNICEF & Washington University: St. Louis, MO, USA, 2022; pp. 1–76. Available online: https://www.datocms-assets.com/30196/1646410730-i-was-not-safe-in-his-house-en_final-4-3.pdf (accessed on 20 July 2022).
- Wolff, B.; Mahoney, F.; Leena Lohiniva, A.; Corkum, M. Collecting and Analyzing Qualitative Data. The CDC Field Epidemiology Manual [Internet]. 13 December 2018. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/eis/field-epi-manual/chapters/Qualitative-Data.html (accessed on 20 July 2022).
- Braun, V.; Clarke, V. Thematic analysis. In APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology, Vol 2: Research Designs: Quantitative, Qualitative, Neuropsychological, and Biological; APA Handbooks in Psychology®; American Psychological Association: Washington, DC, USA, 2012; pp. 57–71. [Google Scholar]
- Dedoose [Internet]. Los Angeles, CA: SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC. 2021. Available online: www.dedoose.com (accessed on 20 July 2022).
- Ceballos, F.; Hernandez, M.A.; Paz, C. Short-term impacts of COVID-19 on food security and nutrition in rural Guatemala: Phone-based farm household survey evidence. Agric. Econ. 2021, 52, 477–494. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- López-Ruiz, M.; Artazcoz, L.; Martínez, J.M.; Rojas, M.; Benavides, F.G. Informal employment and health status in Central America. BMC Public Health 2015, 15, 698. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- John, N.; Roy, C.; Mwangi, M.; Raval, N.; McGovern, T. COVID-19 and Gender-based Violence (GBV): Hard-to-reach Women and Girls, Services, and Programmes in Kenya. Gend. Dev. 2021, 29, 55–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UN Women. In Guatemala, Investing in Indigenous Women’s Economic Empowerment Is Key to Building Back Better after COVID-19. 2020. Available online: https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2020/6/feature-empowering-indigenous-women-in-guatemala-in-covid-19-response (accessed on 15 February 2022).
- Inter-American Development Bank. The Neediest and the Hardest to Reach: Informal Workers Face the Pandemic. 2021. Available online: https://www.iadb.org/en/improvinglives/neediest-and-hardest-reach-informal-workers-face-pandemic (accessed on 20 February 2022).
- ILO. Impact of Lockdown Measures on the Informal Economy; International Labor Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020; p. 16. Available online: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---travail/documents/briefingnote/wcms_743523.pdf (accessed on 20 July 2022).
- Pfitzner, N.; Fitz-Gibbon, K.; True, J. Responding to the ‘Shadow Pandemic’: Practitioner Views on the Nature of and Responses to Violence against Women in Victoria, Australia during the COVID-19 Restrictions. 2020. Available online: https://research.monash.edu/en/publications/responding-to-the-shadow-pandemic-practitioner-views-on-the-natur (accessed on 22 March 2021).
- Duffy, L. Viewing Gendered Violence in Guatemala through Photovoice. Violence Against Women 2018, 24, 421–451. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hernández-Galdamez, D.; Mansilla, K.; Peralta, A.L.; Rodríguez-Szaszdi, J.; Ramírez, J.M.; Roche, D.; Gulayin, P.; Ramirez-Zea, M.; He, J.; Irazola, V.; et al. Monitoring Study Participants and Implementation with Phone Calls to Support Hypertension Control during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Case of a Multicomponent Intervention Trial in Guatemala. Glob. Heart 2021, 16, 77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nair, V.S.; Banerjee, D. “Crisis within the Walls”: Rise of Intimate Partner Violence during the Pandemic, Indian Perspectives. Front. Glob. Womens Health 2021, 2, 614310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Camiñas, M.; Gramegna, S. Bridging Latin America’s Digital Divide for Inclusive Recovery. Lat. Am. Policy J. 2021, 10, 21–25. [Google Scholar]
- Gray, T.J.; Gainous, J.; Wagner, K.M. Gender and the Digital Divide in Latin America. Soc. Sci. Q. 2017, 98, 326–340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cabrera, M.; Lustig, N.; Morán, H.E. Fiscal Policy, Inequality, and the Ethnic Divide in Guatemala. World Dev. 2015, 76, 263–279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sharma, V.; Gompers, A.; Kelly, J.T.D.; Patrick, E.; Heckman, C.; Solomon, A.; Scott, J. Gender-Based Violence Risk Mitigation by Non-GBV Specialists Prior to and during COVID-19: A Global Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Humanitarian Practitioners. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 13387. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Vahedi, L.; Seff, I.; Olaya Rodriguez, D.; McNelly, S.; Interiano Perez, A.I.; Erskine, D.; Poulton, C.; Stark, L. “At the Root of COVID Grew a More Complicated Situation”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Guatemalan Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response System during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 10998. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710998
Vahedi L, Seff I, Olaya Rodriguez D, McNelly S, Interiano Perez AI, Erskine D, Poulton C, Stark L. “At the Root of COVID Grew a More Complicated Situation”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Guatemalan Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response System during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(17):10998. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710998Chicago/Turabian Style
Vahedi, Luissa, Ilana Seff, Deidi Olaya Rodriguez, Samantha McNelly, Ana Isabel Interiano Perez, Dorcas Erskine, Catherine Poulton, and Lindsay Stark. 2022. "“At the Root of COVID Grew a More Complicated Situation”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Guatemalan Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response System during the COVID-19 Pandemic" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 17: 10998. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710998