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Carbon Emissions of the Tourism Telecoupling System: Theoretical Framework, Model Specification and Synthesis Effects

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School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
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Huangshan Park Ecosystem Observation and Research Station, Ministry of Education, Huangshan 245000, China
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School of Management, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
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School of Business, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
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School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Ángel Fernández
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 5984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105984
Received: 7 April 2022 / Revised: 6 May 2022 / Accepted: 12 May 2022 / Published: 14 May 2022
The flows of people and material attributed to international tourism exert a major impact on the global environment. Tourism carbon emissions is the main indicator in this context. However, previous studies focused on estimating the emissions of destinations, ignoring the embodied emissions in tourists’ origins and other areas. This study provides a comprehensive framework of a tourism telecoupling system. Taking China’s international tourism as an example, we estimate the carbon emissions of its tourism telecoupling system based on the Tourism Satellite Account and input–output model. We find that (1) the proposal of a tourism telecoupling system provides a new perspective for analyzing the carbon emissions of a tourism system. The sending system (origins) and indirect spillover system (resource suppliers) have been ignored in previous studies. (2) In the telecoupling system of China’s international tourism, the emission reduction effect of the sending system is significant. (3) The direct spillover system (transit) and indirect spillover system’s spatial transfer effects of environment responsibility are remarkable. (4) There is a large carbon trade implied in international tourism. This study makes us pay attention to the carbon emissions of tourists’ origins and the implied carbon trading in tourism flows. View Full-Text
Keywords: telecoupling; tourism telecoupling system; carbon emission; sending system; indirect spillover system; implied carbon trading telecoupling; tourism telecoupling system; carbon emission; sending system; indirect spillover system; implied carbon trading
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MDPI and ACS Style

Duan, X.; Zhang, J.; Sun, P.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Sun, Y.-Y.; Lenzen, M.; Malik, A.; Cao, S.; Kan, Y. Carbon Emissions of the Tourism Telecoupling System: Theoretical Framework, Model Specification and Synthesis Effects. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 5984. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105984

AMA Style

Duan X, Zhang J, Sun P, Zhang H, Wang C, Sun Y-Y, Lenzen M, Malik A, Cao S, Kan Y. Carbon Emissions of the Tourism Telecoupling System: Theoretical Framework, Model Specification and Synthesis Effects. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(10):5984. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105984

Chicago/Turabian Style

Duan, Xiaofang, Jinhe Zhang, Ping Sun, Honglei Zhang, Chang Wang, Ya-Yen Sun, Manfred Lenzen, Arunima Malik, Shanshan Cao, and Yue Kan. 2022. "Carbon Emissions of the Tourism Telecoupling System: Theoretical Framework, Model Specification and Synthesis Effects" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 10: 5984. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105984

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